Monitoring and Assessing Health Risk of Exposure to Nitrate Residues in Agricultural Products; Case Study in Qom Province, Iran

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Research Center for Environmental Pollutants, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

2 Occupational Health and Safety Department, Health School, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the rate of nitrate residual of major vegetables marketed in the region of Qom province and to estimate the human health risk assessment. In the first stage of this work, four groups of vegetables (lettuce, tomatoes, onion and potatoes) were selected. In two seasons, summer, and autumn, for 4 months165 vegetable samples (lettuce 35, tomatoes 45, onion 35, and potatoes 40) were analyzed to assess the levels of nitrates in vegetables. In the second stage of the study, health risk assessment from intake of vegetables was investigated. Concentration of nitrate in vegetables samples including lettuce (200 ± 65 mg kg−1), onion (187 ± 43 mg kg−1), potato (87 ± 33 mg kg−1) and tomato (294 ± 67 mg kg−1) were determined. Results showed that the average daily dose of nitrate (mg/kg/day) for age groups from vegetables distributed in Qom province is less than the ADI value (3.70 mg/kg BW/day) and the hazard quotient (HQ) of nitrate was less than 1, respectively, so that consumption of such vegetables is not dangerous to consumers' health. Hazard index (HI) for all age groups was less than one were calculated, however, the hazard index is higher for the age group of 5-18 years compared to other age groups. According the results of the cancer risk assessment, the mean cancer risk calculated for all groups by consumption of onion, tomato, and potato products is higher than the acceptable limits (the acceptable level of 1 case per 10000) estimated. Although the results obtained from the health risk assessment of nitrate residual amount in vegetable samples showed no significant hazard for consumers, due to the large share of vegetables in the daily food basket, it is inevitable to continuously monitor nitrate during cultivation and storing the product at the distribution levels.

Keywords


  1. Council of Europe, Nitrates and Nitrites in Foodstuffs. Strasbourg, France, 1999.30 (pp. 29-36).
  2. Corr`e W.J., Breimer T., 1979. Nitrate and nitrite in vegetables. Literature Survey, Department of Soils and Fertilizers Agricultural University Wageningen Netherlands. 3-5
  3. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), 2008. Nitrate in vegetables‐Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food chain. EFSA Journal. 6(6), 689.
  4. Larsson K., Darnerud P.O., Ilbäck N.G, Merino L., 2011. Estimated dietary intake of nitrite and nitrate in Swedish children. Food Additives and Contaminants. 28(5), 659-666.
  5. Beheshti M., Shahbazi K., Bazargan K., Malekzadeh E., 2019. Study of Nitrate Status in Tomatoes and Cucumbers Distributed in the Alborz Province Market. Alborz University of Medical Sciences Journal. 8(3), 281-299
  6. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research, 2014. Test and measurement of nitrite and nitrate in fruit and vegetable products by their measured molecular spectrum, Standard No. 4106.
  7. Uddin R., Uddin M.T., Uddin M.A., Rabiul Islam G.M., 2021. Study of nitrate levels in fruits and vegetables to assess the potential health risks in Bangladesh. Scientific Reports. 11(1), 1-9.
  8. Darvishmotevalli M., Moradniab M., Noorisepehr M., Fatehizadeh A., Fadaeid S., Mohammadi H., Salari M., Ali Jamali H., Daniali S.S., 2019. Evaluation of carcinogenic risks related to nitrate exposure in drinking water in Iran. Methods X .6, 1716-1727.
  9. Kiani A., Sharafi K., Khalid Omerd A., Karami Matin B., Davoodi R., Sharafi H., Soleimani H., Massahi T., Ahmadi E., 2022. Accumulation and human health risk assessment of nitrate in vegetables irrigated with different irrigation water sources- transfer evaluation of nitrate from soil to vegetables, Environmental Research. 205, 112527.
  10. Rahman M.M., Bodrud-Doza M., Muhib M.I., Hossain K.F., Sikder M.T., Shammi M., Akter R., Uddin M.K., 2020.Human health risk assessment of nitrate and trace metals via groundwater in Central Bangladesh. Pollution. 1; 6(2), 253-66.
  11. Ahadi Z., Heshmat R., Sanaei M., Shafiee G., Ghaderpanahi M., Homami M.R., 2014. Knowledge, attitude and practice of urban and rural households towards principles of nutrition in Iran: results of NUTRIKAP survey. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 13(1), 1.
  12. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research, 2013. Maximum level for nitrate in agricultural products, Standard, ICS: 65.080.
  13. Mehri F., Heshmati A., Moradi M., Mousavi Khaneghah A., 2019. The concentration and health risk assessment of nitrate in vegetables and fruits samples of Iran. Toxin Reviews. doi.org/10. 1080/15569543. 2019. 1673424
  14. Kiani A., KiomarsSharafi., Khalid Omerd A., Karami Matin B., Davoodi R., Sharafi H., Soleimani H., Massahi T., Ahmadi E., 2022. Accumulation and human health risk assessment of nitrate in vegetables irrigated with different irrigation water sources- transfer evaluation of nitrate from soil to vegetables, Environmental Research. 205, 112527
  15. Quijano L.,Vicent Y.F., McAllister C., Torres C., Pardo O., 2017.Risk assessment and monitoring programme of nitrates through vegetables in the Region of Valencia (Spain), Food and Chemical Toxicology. 100, 42-49
  16. Yeganeh M., Bazargan K., Samaee M., Ardebili M.F., Tabbakhian S., 2019.Residual nitrate in potato tuber samples collected from fields in important production areas and the main fruit and vegetables supply center of Tehran. Iranian Journal of Soil Research. 32(4), 471-83.
  17. Tabande L., Safarzadeh Shiraze S., 2018. Evaluation of nitrate accumulation and factors affecting it in some leafy vegetables in Zanjan Province. Iranian Journal of Soil Research. 23; 32(2), 189-201.
  18. Iammarino M., Di Taranto A., Cristino M., 2014. Monitoring of nitrites and nitrates levels in leafy vegetables (spinach and lettuce): a contribution to risk assessment. J Sci Food Agric. 94, 773–778
  19. Thomson B.M, Nokes C.J., Cressey P.J., 2007. Intake and risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite from New Zealand foods and drinking water. Food Additives & Contaminants. 24(2), 113-121.
  20. Taneja P., Labhasetwar P., Nagarnaik P., Ensink J.H., 2017. The risk of cancer as a result of elevated levels of nitrate in drinking water and vegetables in Central India. Journal of Water and Health. 15(4), 602-14.

 

Volume 12, Issue 3
July 2022
Pages 465-471
  • Receive Date: 05 February 2022
  • Revise Date: 20 April 2022
  • Accept Date: 23 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 28 May 2022