Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy metals in Cow Milks from Selected Local Government Areas of Kano state, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article


1 Federal University Dutse, P.M.B, 7156, Jigawa State, Nigeria

2 Bayero University Kano, P.M.B., Kano State, Nigeria


Environmental pollution is a problem that has emerged due to increased industrialization with its attendant effects on well-being of people. This study determined the contamination level of cow milk by the heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) from three local governments (Bichi, Rano and Nassarawa) in Kano state. The results obtained showed that, the concentration of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn were below permissible limits in milk. Whereas, moderate contamination by Fe and Cr were also observed. The data obtained were used to calculate   some risk indices such as daily intake of metals (DIM), and total hazard index (THI). The DIM in the three local governments was within the range of 3.4 × 10-4 – 6.8 × 10-3 µg l-1. b.w/day for Cr and 0.367 – 1.55 µg/l. b.w/day for Fe. Lead (Pb) was only detected in Rano local government within the range of 0.104 – 0.117 µg/l. b.w/day, while Zn was detected in Bichi and Rano within the range of 0.048 – 0.113 µg l-1. b.w/day. All hazard indices calculated for metals were found to be below 1. The result therefore, showed tolerable risk in consumed milk at the aforementioned locations. However, risk assessment should be carried out at intervals as a form of environmental assessment to assess the general health of the public, to prevent buildup of environmental pollutants and consequent consequences.


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Volume 12, Issue 2
June 2022
Pages 305-314
  • Receive Date: 27 June 2021
  • Revise Date: 27 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 February 2022
  • First Publish Date: 05 February 2022