Variability of the Type II Diabetes Mellitus Incidence Rate of Population of Cities in the Republic of Azerbaijan

Document Type : Original Article


Department III of Internal Diseases, Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku, Republic of Azerbaijan


The purpose of the study is comparative assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence rate among population of cities of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Study was carried out in main cities of republican subordination. The unit of statistical observation was a patient with confirmed and newly diagnosed T2DM. Standardised incidence rate of T2DM by age was calculated by direct standardisation method. Variability of incidence rate of Azerbaijan population was estimated. The highest incidence for 2012 year was identified among population of Naftalan and the lowest – in the city of Ganja. As the result of comparison significant difference between cities Sumgayit, Shirvan and Mingachevir was not determined (р>0.05). In these cities the incidence rate is much higher (р<0.01) than in Ganja, lower than in Baku and Naftalan. The intercity difference in the standardised incidence rate of the population with T2DM remains. But at the same time volatility of standardised T2DM incidence rate (151.6) among population nearly is the same of actual incidence rate (151.3). The population risk of T2DM in cities of Azerbaijan differs from each other significantly, both due to actual and standardised coefficients. Variability of incidence rate of T2DM among population more pronounced according annual coefficients, than according average chronological coefficients and standard deviations. Volatility of incidence rate of T2DM among population can be comprehensively assessed by the level of annual, chronological average incidence rates, variability, and the size of the standard deviation.


  1. Ryden L., Grant P.J., Anker S.D., 2013. ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. European Heart Journal. 34, 3035-3087.
  2. Koo B.K., Lee C.H., Yang B.R., 2014. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: A national Health insurance database study. PLOS ONE. 9(10), e110650.
  3. Sreedharan J., Muttappallymyalil J., Sharbatti S.A., 2013. Incidence of type – 2 diabetes mellitus among Emirati population in Ajman, UAE. Gulf Medical Journal. 2(82), 58-63.
  4. Ferguson T.S. Tulloch-Reid M.K., Wilks R.J., 2010 The epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Jamaica and the Caribbean. A historical review. West Indian Medical Journal. 59(3), 259-264.
  5. Ledergerber B. Furrer H., Rickenbach M. 2007. Factors associated with the incidence of type – 2 diabetes mellitus in HIV – infected participants in the Swiss HIV Cohort study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 45, 111-119.
  6. Agaeva K.F., Huseynli A.F., 2014. Features of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its age dynamics at the present stage of economic development among the population of the former Soviet industrial city. Public Health and Health Care. 3, 22-24.
  7. Demicheva T.P., Shilova S.P., 2013. Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus and its complications in the population in the Perm region. Problems of Social Hygiene, Healthcare and the History of Medicine. 4, 19-21.
  8. Estejhamati A., Larijani B., Aghajami M., 2017. Diabetes in Iran: Prospective analysis from first Nationwide Diabetes report of National Program for Prevention and control of diabetes (NPPCD – 2016). Scientific Reports. 7, 13461.
  9. Esteghamati A., 2014. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in association with obesity in Iran: 2005–2011. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 103, 319-327.
  10. Sarayani A., Rashidian A., Gholami K., 2014. Low utilisation of diabetes medicines in Iran, despite their affordability (2000–2012): A time-series and benchmarking study. BMJ Open. 4, e005859.
  11. Javanbakht M., Mashayekhi A., Baradaran H.R., Haghdoost A., Afshin A., 2015. Projection of diabetes population size and associated economic burden through 2030 in Iran: Evidence from micro-simulation Markov model and Bayesian meta-analysis. PloS One. 10, e0132505.
  12. Hoseini S.M., 2015. Evaluation of plasma MMP-8, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 identifies candidate cardiometabolic risk marker in metabolic syndrome: Results from double-blinded nested case-control study. Metabolism. 64, 527-538.
  13. Vasheghani-Farahani A., 2017. Correlation of ankle-brachial index and peripheral artery disease with the status of body fat deposition and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic premenopausal women. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 11, 203-209.
  14. Afarideh M., 2017. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 27, 93-95.
  15. Farzadfar F., 2012. Effectiveness of diabetes and hypertension management by rural primary health-care workers (Behvarz workers) in Iran: A nationally representative observational study. The Lancet. 379, 47-54.
  16. Noshad S., Afarideh M., Heidari B., Mechanick J.I., Esteghamati A., 2014. Diabetes care in Iran: Where we stand and where we are headed. Annals of Global Health. 81, 839-850.
  17. Noshad S., 2017. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iran: A 2011 update. Journal of Diabetes. 9, 518-525
  18. Esteghamati A., Etemad K., Koohpayehzadeh J., Abbasi M., Meysamie A., Khajeh E., Asgari F., Noshad S., Rafei A., Mousavizadeh M., Neishaboury Mohamad R., Afarideh M., Nakhjavani M., 2016. Awareness, treatment and control of pre-hypertension, and hypertension among adults in Iran. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 19(7), 456-464.
  19. Afarideh M., Noshad S., Ghajar A., Aryan Z., Khajeh E., Hosseini Shirvani S., Bonnet F., Esteghamati A., 2017. Family history of diabetes and the risk of coronary heart disease in people with or without type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism. 43(2), 180-183.
  20. Abzaham T.M., Pencina K.M., Pencina M.J., Fox C.S., 2015. Trends in diabetes incidence: The Framingham heart study. Diabetes Care. 38, 482-487.
  21. Selvin E., Parrinello C.M., Sacks D.B., Coresh J., Trends in prevalence and control of diabetes in the United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. Annals of Internal Medicine. 160, 517-525.
  22. Flegal K.M., Carroll M.D., Kit B.K., Ogden C.L., 2012. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA. 307, 491-497.
  23. Ogden C.L., Carroll M.D., Kit B.K., Flegal K.M., 2014. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 311, 806-814.
  24. Tabaei B.P., Chamany S., Driver C.R., Kerker B., Silver L., 2012. Incidence of self-reported diabetes in New York City, 2002, 2004, and 2008. Preventing Chronic Disease. 9, E114.
  25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Incidence of diagnosed diabetes per 1.000 population aged 17-89 years, by age, 1980-2011. (Accessed August 27, 2021).
  26. Anjana R.M., Pradeepa R., Deepa M., Datta M., Sudha V., Unnikrishnan R., 2011. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: Phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-INdiaDIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. 54, 3022-2027.
  27. Deepa M., Anjana R.M., Manjula D., Narayan K.M., Mohan V., 2011. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardio metabolic risk factors in middle- and low-income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 5, 918-927.
  28. Basit A., Danish Alvi S.F., Fawwad A., Ahmed K., Yakoob Ahmedani M., Hakeem R., 2011. Temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes impaired fasting glucose and its associated risk factors in the rural area of Baluchistan. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 94, 456-462.
  29. Zafar J., Bhatti F., Akhtar N., Rasheed U., Bashir R., Humayun S., 2011. Prevalence and risk factors for diabetes mellitus in a selected urban population of a city in Punjab. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 61, 40-47.
  30. Mahar P.S., Awan M.Z., Manzar N., Memon M.S., 2010. Prevalence of type-II diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy: the Gaddap study. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 20, 528-532.
  31. Pinidiyapathirage M.J., Kasturiratne A., Ranawaka U.K., Gunasekara D., Wijekoon N., Medagoda K., 2013. The burden of diabetes mellitus and impaired fasting glucose in an urban population of Sri Lanka. Diabetic Medicine. 30, 326-332.
  32. Jayawardena R., Ranasinghe P., Byrne N.M., Soares M.J., Katulanda P., Hills A.P., 2012. Prevalence and trends of the diabetic epidemic in South Asia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 12, article number 380.
  33. Tharkar S., Devarajan A., Kumpatla S., Viswanathan V., 2010. The socioeconomics of diabetes from a developing country: A population-based cost of illness study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 89, 334-340.
  34. Cheema A., Adeboye D., Sidhu S. Urbanization and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Southern Asia: A systematic analysis. Journal of Global Health. 4(1), 010404.
  35. Stanton G., 1999. Biomedical Statistics, Moscow: Praktika.