Risk Assessment for AL-Nahrawn Site that Contaminated with Depleted Uranium in Baghdad

Document Type : Original Article


1 Radioactive Waste Management's Department, Radioactive Waste Directorate, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

2 Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq



Activity concentrations of (238U series), (226Ra), (232Th) and (40K) in some soil samples in AL-Nahrawan site 52 soil samples were determined and evaluated. The measurements were carried out using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations in soil samples were (76019.61, 16.634, 11.693 and 147.55) Bq Kg-1 for 238U ,226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The concentration of 238U more than of accepted limited of clearance level according to IAEA and that mean AL-Nahrawan site is radioactive contaminated site. The risk assessment that calculated for AL-Nahrawan site appear the  most of dose that calculated from different pathways such as ingestion ,inhalation ,drinking water and meat  is  coming from external dose and most of it from 238U than another radio nuclides such as (226R, 232Thand 40K). The total dose for the contaminated area that calculated by RESRAD code (7.2) dose from all nuclides all pathways summed in AL-Nahrawan is (1.46 mSv / year) and that more the accepted limit for dose limit exposure to public (1 mSv/A) according the IAEA and that mean the public have limit use and action for this site. The high purity germanium analysis appears AL-Nahrawan site contaminated with Du depended on the ratio between 235U and 238U radio nuclides. The cancer risk from all nuclides calculated by RESRD code for AL-Nahrawan site is (2.2) ×10-3This value is above the global average of 0.29×10 −3 and 1.16×10 −3 reported by UNSCEAR.


  1. Akl M.A., Masoud R., 2018. Flotation and Enhanced Spectrophotometric Determination of Uranium (VI) in Environmental Samples. Egyptian Journal of Chemistry. 61(2), 337-348.
  2. Iaea-Tecdoc B., 1999. 1092. Generic procedures for monitoring in a nuclear or radiological emergency. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna.
  3. Othman M., Hassan H., 2013. Application of RESRAD model to assess radiation doses due to TENORM accumulation in evaporation pond during petroleum production. Arab Journal of Nuclear Science and Applications. 46(2), 172-179.
  4. King D.A., Keil K., 2006. Comparison of standard radiological risk models and using RESRAD to derive generic risk‐based area factors for final status surveys. Risk Analysis: An International Journal. 26(1), 175-183.
  5. Essa B.H., 2021. Radiological characterization of Nahrawan site in Baghdad governorate using portable radiation devices. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT). 12(13), 3539-3547.
  6. Turner J.E., 2008. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection. John Wiley & Sons
  7. Taqi A., Shaker A., Battawy A., 2018. Natural radioactivity assessment in soil samples from Kirkuk city of Iraq using HPGe detector. International Journal of Radiation Research. 16(4), 455-463.
  8. Brugge D., deLemos J.L., Oldmixon B., 2005. Exposure pathways and health effects associated with chemical and radiological toxicity of natural uranium: a review. Reviews on Environmental Health. 20(3), 177-194.
  9. Majed N.A., 2019. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels and Radiological Hazards for Tigris River Basin. Journal of Madenat Alelem College. 11(2), 16-22.
  10. Al-Ubaidi Environmental Radioactivity of Al-Rashidiyah Site–Baghdad A., Ph. D. Thesis, University of Baghdad, College of Science for Women, 2015.
  11. IAEA, International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, 2004.
  12. IAEA. 2005. Derivation of activity concentration values for exclusion, exemption and clearance. International Atomic Energy Agency
  13. Joint F., Organization W.H., . for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture.
  14. Saleh A.M., Al-Mashhadani A.H., Siyah M.A., 2014. Natural Radioactivity Concentration and Estimation of Radiation Exposure in Environmental Soil Samples from Al-Sader City/Iraq. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology. 4 (4), 25-29
  15. Organization W.H., 1994. International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources.
  16. Al-Alawy I.T., Mhana W.J., Ebraheem R.M., Nasser H.J., Omran A.M., 2020Radiation hazards and transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to plant at Al-Tuwaitha City-Iraq.