Effect of Baking Methods Types on Residues of Heavy Metals in the Different Breads Produced with Wheat Flour in Iran: A Case Study of Mashhad

Document Type : Original Article


1 Medical Toxicology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Social Determinant of Health Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Department of Health Education and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

5 Department of Food Hygiene and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

6 Student Research Committee, Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Food contamination with heavy metals is the main concern for human health that increases globally. Bread wheat is one of the most important grain products for human consumption. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of baking methods on residues of heavy metals in the different breads produced with wheat flour in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 180 samples of different breads produced in 90 bakery shops in Mashhad was analyzed for some heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, Co, As, Al, V, Cd, and Ni) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Results showed that the average concentration of Fe, Al, Zn, Cu, and Cd in some bread samples were significantly (p<0.05) different between traditional and industrial baking processes. The average concentrations of the entire test of Fe (46.35±39.78 mg.kg-1), Cr (0.28±0.33 mg.kg-1), Al (3.49±1.89 mg.kg-1), and As (0.479±0.229 mg.kg-1) were higher than the current corresponding safety limit in all type of bread. The results obtained indicated that the government requires implementing more remediation or intervention to control and mitigating the contamination burden of heavy metals in traditional bread in the study area to reduce its associated risks for human health.


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Volume 12, Issue 1
January 2022
Pages 105-113
  • Receive Date: 01 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 22 June 2021
  • First Publish Date: 26 June 2021