The Synthesis of Surfactant Coated Glass Foam to Extract and Determine Trace Quantities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Drinking Water

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran

3 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran


The present work deals with a simple, inexpensive, sensitive, high performance and economic technique for extracting and preconcentrating trace quantity of PAHs compounds through glass foam modified with CTAB surfactant. Solution desorption was employed subsequently for transferring the extracted PAHs into a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry’s injection port. BET, TGA, and FT-IR were used to characterize glass foam and CTAB/glass foam. Operative parameters in PAHs extraction and preconcentration such as amount of sorbent, pH, recovery solvent type, ionic power of solution, contacting time, and recovery time were enhanced to quantitatively determine PAHs. Analytical statistics of merit including limit of detection, accuracy, and linear range were determined to prove the suitability of our suggested technique. The CTAB/glass foam represented higher sensitivity to detect very lower concentration of PAHs such as phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene and anthracene at ng mL-1 level with high accuracy for drinking water samples.


1. Reemtsma T., Weiss S., Mueller J., Petrovic M.,Gonzalez S., Barcelo D., Ventura F. Knepper T.P., 2006. Polar Pollutants Entry into the Water Cycle by Municipal Wastewater: A European Perspective. Environ Sci Technol. 40, 5451−5458.
2. Sonune A., Ghate R., 2004. Developments in wastewater treatment methods. Desalination. 167, 55−63.
3. Sanchez-Avila J., Bonet J., Velasco G., Lacorte S., 2009. Determination and occurrence of phthalates, alkyl phenols, bisphenol A, PBDEs, PCB sand PAHs in an industrial sewage grid discharging to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Sci Total Environ. 407, 4157−4167.
4. Behera B.K., Das A., Sarkar D.J., Weerathunge P., Parida P.K., Das B.K., Thavamani P., Ramanathan R., Bansal V., 2018. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in inland aquatic ecosystems: Perils and remedies through biosensors and bioremediation. Environ Pollut. 241, 212−233.
5. Tsibart A.S., Gennadiev A.N., 2013. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils: Sources, behavior, and indication significance (a review). Eurasian Soil Sci. 46, 728−741.
6. Wilson S.C., Jones K.C., 1993. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with poly nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review Environ Pollut. 81, 229−249.
7.Sun C., Zhang J., Ma Q., Chen Y., Ju H., 2017. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment from a river basin: sediment water partitioning, source identification and environmental health risk assessment. Environ Geochem Health. 39, 63−74.
8. Nwaichi E.O., Ntorgbo S.A., 2016. Assessment of PAHs levels in some fish and seafood from different coastal waters in the Niger Delta. Toxicol Rep. 3, 167−172.
9. Shimada T., Fujii-Kuriyama Y., 2004. Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to carcinogens by cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1.Cancer Sci. 95, 1−6.
10. Plant A.L., Knapp R.D., Smith L.C., 1987. Mechanism and rate of permeation of cells by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Biol Chem. 262, 2514−2519.
11. Pratt M.M., John K., MacLean A.B., Afework S., Phillips D.H., Poirier M.C., 2011. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and DNA adduct semi-quantitation in archived human tissues. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 8, 2675−2691.
12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atlanta; 1995.
13. Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, BfR. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in consumer products to be regulated by the EU-risk assessment by BfR in the context of a restriction proposal under REACH, Opinion Nr. 032/2010. Berlin, German. 2010.
14. Ballesteros R., Hernandez J.J., Lyons L.L., 2010. An experimental study of the influence of bio fuel origin on particle-associated. Atmos Environ. 44, 930–8.
15. Song YF., Jing X., Fleischmann S., Wilke B.M., 2002. Comparative study of extraction for determination of PAH from contaminated soils and sediments. Chemosphere. 48, 993–1001.
16. Rissanen T., Hyotylainen T., Kallio M., Kronholm J., Kulmala M., Riekkola M.L., 2006. Characterization of organic compounds in aerosol particles from a coniferousforest by GC–MS. Chemosphere. 64, 1185–95.
17. Wartel M., Pauwels J.F., Desgroux P., Mercier X., 2010. Quantitative measurement of naphthalene in low-pressure flames by jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence. Appl Phys B. 100, 933–43.
18. Ballesteros R., Hernandez J.J., Lyons L.L., 2009. Determination of PAHs in diesel particulate matter using thermal extraction and solid phase micro-extraction. Atmos Environ. 43, 655–62.
19. Mastral A., Callen M., Murillo R., Garcia T., Vinas M., 1999. Influence on PAH emissions of the air flow in AFB coal combustion. Fuel. 78, 1553–7.
20. Aracil I., Font R., Conesa J.A., 2005. Semivolatile and volatile compound from the pyrolysis and combustion of polyvinyl chloride. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 74, 465–78.
21. Font R., Aracil I., Fullana A., Martin-Gullon I., Conesa J.A., 2003. Semivolatile compounds in pyrolysis of polyethylene. J Anal Appl Pyrol. 69, 599–611.
22. Ledesma E.B., Marsh N.D., Sandrowitz A.K., Wornat M.J., 2002. Global kinetic rate parameters for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the pyrolysis of catechol, a model compound representative of solid fuel moieties. Energy Fuel. 16, 1331–6.
23. Thomas S., Ledesma E.B., Wornat M.J., 2007. The effects of oxygen on the yields of thethermal decomposition products of catechol under pyrolysis and fuel rich oxidation conditions. Fuel. 86, 2581–95.
24. Mirabi A., Jamali M.R., Kazemi Q., 2016. Determination of trace amounts of manganese in water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Bulg Chem Commun. 48, 525-531.
25. Movaghgharnezhad Sh., Mirabi A., Toosi M.R., Shokuhi-Rad A., 2020. Synthesis of cellulose nanofibers functionalized by dithiooxamide for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of Cd (II) ions in water samples, Cellulose. 27, 8885–8898.
26. Mirabi A., Dalirandeh Z., Shokuhi-Rad A.,  2015. Preparation of modified magnetic nanoparticles as asorbent for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium ions in food and environmental water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry. J Magn Magn Mater. 381, 138-144.
27. Mirabi A., Shokouhi-Rad A., Nourani S., 2015. Application of Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles as a Sorbent for Preconcentration and Determination of Nickel Ions in Food and Environmental Water Samples. Trends Anal Chem. 74, 146-151.
28. Mirabi A., Shokuhi-Rad A., Jamali M.R., Danesh N., 2016. Use of Modified γ-Alumina Nanoparticles for the Extraction and Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Cadmium Ions. Aust J Chem. 69, 314–318.
29. Li X.G., Feng H., Huang M.R., Gu G.L., Moloney M.G., 2012. Ultrasensitive Pb (II) potentiometric sensor based on copolyaniline nanoparticles in a plasticizer-free membrane with a long lifetime. Anal Chem. 84, 134-140.
30. Huang M.R., Ding Y.B., Li X.G., Liu Y., Xi K., Gao C.L., Kumar R.V., 2014. Synthesis of semiconducting polymer microparticles as solid ionophore with abundant complexing sites for long-life Pb(II) sensors, ACS appl mater interfaces. 6, 22096-22107.
31. Huang M.R., Ding Y.B., Li X.G., 2013. Lead ion potentiometric sensor based on electrically conducting microparticles of sulfonic phenylenediamine copolymer. Analyst. 138, 3820-3829.
32. Lam S.H., Chen C.K., Wang J.Sh., Lee Sh.Sh., 2008. Investigation of Flavonoid Glycosides from Neolitsea sericea var. auratavia the General Method and HPLC-SPE-NMR. J Chin Chem Soc. 55, 449-455.
33. Ghaedi M., Shokrollahi A., Ahmadi F., 2007. Simultaneous preconcentration and determination of copper, nickel, cobalt and lead ions content by flame aomic absorption spectrometry. J Hazard Mater. 142, 272-278.
34. Mirabi A., Shokuhi-Rad A., Khodadad H., 2015. Modified surface based on magnetic nanocomposite of dithiooxamide /Fe3O4 as a sorbent for preconcentration and determination of trace amounts of copper. J Magn Magn Mater. 389, 130-135.
35. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA. Compendium of methods for the determination of toxic organic compounds in ambient air, method TO-13A, EPA/625/R-96/010b. Ohio. 1999.
Volume 12, Issue 1
January 2022
Pages 81-91
  • Receive Date: 17 February 2021
  • Revise Date: 14 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 12 June 2021
  • First Publish Date: 16 June 2021