Modified Titania Impact on Photocatalytic Efficiency of Bmim [Cl]


Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia


ABSTRACT: Titania has been one of the promising alternatives in treating environmental pollution issues and was considered in various applications due to its flexible behaviour. Many studies have been conducted to test its phase-changing properties and adaptive ability such as calcination process, and metal and nonmetal modification using mono-doped or co-doped elements. In the present study, the photocatalyst was developed from embedment with activated carbon (AC) followed by co-doping of Cu2+ and Fe3+ metal ions. The photocatalyst was characterized by XRD, BET and FESEM. The synthesized photocatalyst was tested in the photocatalytic degradation system for ionic liquid (IL) at the optimized parameters which includes solution pH = 6, [photocatalyst] = 1 g/L and [H2O2] = 0.75 ml/L. The co-doped product exhibited a smaller crystalline sizes as compared to bare TiO2. In addition, copper and iron dopants are well dispersed into the TiO2 lattice as no additional phases were detected. Maximum degradation of 77% of 0.11mM IL was recorded in the Cu:Fe-TiO2/AC system after 240 min of visible light irradiation. The system’s efficiency in terms of tested photocatalysts is in the order of P25 < TiO2 < TiO2/AC < Cu:Fe-TiO2/AC, respectively.


1. Siedlecka E.M., Czerwicka M., Neumann J., Stepnowski P., Fernndez J.F., Thöming J., 2011. Ionic Liquids: Methods of Degradation and Recovery. Ionic Liquids: Theory, Properties, New Approaches.
2. Romero A., Santos A., Tojo J., Rodríguez A., 2008. Toxicity And Biodegradability of Imidazolium Ionic Liquids. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 151(1), 268-273.
3. Maria Siedlecka E., Czerwicka M., Stolte S., Stepnowski P., 2011. Stability of Ionic Liquids In Application Conditions. Current Organic Chemistry. 15(12), 1974-1991.
4.Tekin H., Bilkay O., Ataberk S.S., Balta T.H., Ceribasi I.H., Sanin F.D., Dilek F.B., Yetis U., 2006. Use of Fenton Oxidation To Improve The Biodegradability Of A Pharmaceutical Wastewater. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 136(2), 258-265.
5. Aljuboury D.A.A, Palaniandy P., Abdul Aziz H., Feroz S., 2017. Evaluation of The Photocatalyst of TiO2/Fenton/ZnO To Treat The Petroleum Wastewater of the International Conference of Global Network for Innovative Technology and AWAM International Conference in Civil Engineering, August 8-10, 19, pp. 439-452.
6. Czerwicka M., Stolte S., Müller A., Siedlecka E., Gołębiowski M., Kumirska J., Stepnowski P., 2009. Identification Of Ionic Liquid Breakdown Products In An Advanced Oxidation System. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 171, 478-483.
7. Yoon J.W., Baek M.H., Hong J.S., Lee C.Y., Suh J.K., 2012. Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dye Using TiO2 Supported on Spherical Activated Carbon. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(12), 1722-1729.
8. Haarstrick A., Kut O.M., Heinzle E., 1996. TiO2-Assisted Degradation of Environmentally Relevant Organic Compounds In Wastewater Using a Novel Fluidized Bed Photoreactor. Environmental Science & Technology. 30(3), 817-824.
9. Lachheb H., Puzenat E., Houas A., Ksibi M., Elaloui E., Guillard C., Herrmann J.M., 2002. Photocatalytic Degradation of Various Types of Dyes (Alizarin S, Crocein Orange G, Methyl Red, Congo Red, Methylene Blue) In Water By UV-Irradiated Titania. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 39(1), 75-90.
10. El-Salamony R., Amdeha E., Ghoneim S.A., Badawy N.A., Salem K.M., Al-Sabagh A.M., 2017. Titania Modified Activated Carbon Prepared From Sugarcane Bagasse: Adsorption And Photocatalytic Degradation Of Methylene Blue Under Visible Light Irradiation. Environmental Technology. 38(24), 3122-3136.
11.Yap P.S., Lim T.T., 2012. Solar Regeneration of Powdered Activated Carbon Impregnated With Visible-Light Responsive Photocatalyst: Factors Affecting Performances And Predictive Model. Water Research. 46(9), 3054-3064.
12. Paola A.D., Ikeda S., Marcì G., Ohtani B., Palmisano L., 2001. Transition Metal Doped TiO2: Physical Properties And Photocatalytic Behaviour. International Journal of Photoenergy. 3(4), 171-176.
13.Kumar S.G., Devi L.G., 2011. Review on Modified TiO2photocatalysis Under UV/Visible Light: Selected Results And Related Mechanisms On Interfacial Charge Carrier Transfer Dynamics. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 115(46), 13211-13241.
14. Zawawi A., Ramli R.M., Yub Harun N., 2017. Photodegradation of 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride [Bmim]Cl Via Synergistic Effect of Adsorption–Photodegradation of Fe-TiO2/AC. Technologies. 5(4), 82.
15. Ramli R.M., Chong F.K., Omar A.A., Murugesan T., 2014. Performance of Surfactant Assisted Synthesis of Fe/Tio2on The Photodegradation of Diisopropanolamine. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water. 43(5), 690-697.
16. Farwizah Shahhiran A., Ramli R.M., Mohd Zaid H.F., 2020. Development of Photocatalytic Degradation And Kinetic Study For Imidazolium Based Ionic Liquids In Fe-Cu/TiO2-AC System. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 442, 012001.
17. Momeni M.M., Ghayeb Y., 2016. Preparation of Cobalt Coated TiO2 and WO3 –TiO2 Nanotube Films Via Photo-Assisted Deposition With Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light Illumination. Ceramics International. 42(6), 7014-7022.
18. Hwang K.J., Lee J.W, Shim W.G., Jang H.D., Lee S.I., Yoo S.J., 2012. Adsorption And Photocatalysis Of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Particles Prepared By Sol–Gel Method For Methylene Blue Degradation. Advanced Powder Technology. 23(3), 414-418.
19. Luttrell T., Halpegamage S., Tao J., Kramer A., Sutter E., Batzill M., 2014. Why Is Anatase A Better Photocatalyst Than Rutile? - Model Studies on Epitaxial Tio2 Films. Scientific Reports. 4(1), 4043.
20. Asiltürk M., Sayılkan F., Arpaç E., 2009. Effect of Fe3+ Ion Doping To TiO2 On The Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Dye Under UV And Vis-Irradiation. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 203(1), 64-71.
21. Wang X., Hu Z., Chen Y., Zhao G., Liu Y., Wen Z., 2009. A Novel Approach Towards High-Performance Composite Photocatalyst of TiO2 Deposited On Activated Carbon. Applied Surface Science. 255(7), 3953-3958.
22. Naeem K., Ouyang F., 2010. Preparation of Fe3+-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles And Its Photocatalytic Activity Under UV Light. Physica B: Condensed Matter. 405(1), 221-226.
23. Sahu, M., Biswas, P., 2011. Single-Step Processing of Copper-Doped Titania Nanomaterials In A Flame Aerosol Reactor. Nanoscale Research Letters. 6(1), 1-14.
24. Ramli R.M., Kait C.K., Omar A.A., 2016. Remediation of DIPA Contaminated Wastewater Using Visible Light Active Bimetallic Cu-Fe/TiO2 Photocatalyst. Procedia Engineering. 148, 508-515.
25. Khalid N.R., Ahmed E., Hong Z., Ahmad M., Zhang Y., Khalid S., 2013. Cu-Doped TiO 2 Nanoparticles/Graphene Composites For Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalysis. Ceramics International. 39(6), 7107-7113.
26. Gao B., Yap P.S., Lim T.M., Lim T.T., 2011. Adsorption-Photocatalytic Degradation Of Acid Red 88 By Supported Tio2: Effect Of Activated Carbon Support And Aqueous Anions. Chemical Engineering Journal. 171(3), 1098-1107.
27. Raj K.J.A., Viswanathan B., 2009. Effect of Surface Area, Pore Volume and Particle Size of P25 Titania On The Phase Transformation Of Anatase To Rutile. Indian Journal of Chemistry. 48(10), 1378-1382.
28. Ouzzine M., Romero-Anaya A.J., Lillo-Ródenas M.A., Linares-Solano A., 2013. Spherical Activated Carbon As An Enhanced Support For TiO2/AC Photocatalysts. Carbon. 67, 104-118.
29. Slimen H., Houas A., Nogier J.P., 2011. Elaboration of Stable Anatase TiO2 Through Activated Carbon Addition With High Photocatalytic Activity Under Visible Light. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry. 221(1), 13-21.
30.Wang X., Liu Y., Hu Z., Chen Y., Liu W., Zhao G., 2009. Degradation Of Methyl Orange By Composite Photocatalysts Nano-Tio2 Immobilized On Activated Carbons Of Different Porosities. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 169(1-3), 1061-1067.
31.Nguyen N.V., Nguyen N.K.T., Phi H.N., 2011. Hydrothermal Synthesis Of Fe-Doped Tio2 Nanostructure Photocatalyst. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2(3), 035014.
32. Peter Etape E., John Ngolui L., Foba-Tendo, J., Yufanyi, D., Victorine Namondo B., 2017. Synthesis And Characterization of Cuo, TiO2, And Cuo-TiO2 Mixed Oxide By A Modified Oxalate Route. Journal of Applied Chemistry. 2017(1), 1-10.
33. Avilés-García O., Espino-Valencia J., Romero-Romero R., Rico-Cerda J.L., Arroyo-Albiter M., Solís-Casados D.A., Natividad-Rangel R., 2018. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Of Titania By Co-Doping With Mo And W. Catalysts. 8(12), 631.
34. Bashiri R., Mohamed N.M, Kait C.F., Sufian S., 2015. Hydrogen Production From Water Photosplitting Using Cu/TiO2 Nanoparticles: Effect of Hydrolysis Rate And Reaction Medium. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 40(18), 6021-6037.
Volume 11, Issue 3
July 2021
Pages 283-290
  • Receive Date: 15 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 02 June 2021
  • Accept Date: 22 February 2021
  • First Publish Date: 02 June 2021