Larvicidal Activity of Melaleuca leucadendra Leaves Extract Against Aedes aegypti

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

Public Health Department, Faculty of Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Jl. A Yani Tromol Pos, Karanganyar, Jawa Tengah Province, Indonesia, 57162

10.22034/jchr.2021.682033

Abstract

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) depends on controlling Aedes aegyptimosquitoes and larvae. Currently, larvicide control still uses temefos larvicide, though several studies have reported resistance. Insecticides from plants can be used as an alternative. One of the plants reported to have larvicide potency was Melaleuca leucadendraleaves. This study aimed to look at ethanol extract of M.leucadendra leaves activity in killing Aedes aegyptilarvae and LC50 values ​​after a 24-hour examination. This type of research was Experimental Design with Post-test Only Control Group Design. M. Leucadendra leaves was extracted through maceration process using ethanol 96%. The treatments consisted of 8 concentrations of 400mg/L (0.04%); 1000mg/L (0.1% ); 1600mg/L (0.16%); 2000mg/L (0.2%); 10,000mg/L (1%); 20,000mg/L (2%); 30,000mg/L (3%); 40,000mg/L (4%) and the control group (0%). Each concentration was replicated four times and used twentyof the third larvae A.aegypti. The results showed that M.leucadendra has a lethal ability against A.aegypti. There was a correlation between the extract concentration and the larva mortality (p=0.000; 95%). Extract concentration 0.04-0.2% of the extract caused mortality less than 3%, and the highest mortality (47.5%) reached by concentration 4%. The LOGIT test showed that the number of LC50 was 3.7% (37,600mg/L) with 95% significance. A high concentration (>1%) of extract M. leucadendra caused turbid, greenish-gray color, and unpleasant smell on the water. Regarding the WHO bioassay guideline, etahnol extract of M. leucadendra leaves was less effective in killing Aedes aegypti larvae, though it causes lethal effect A.aegypti.

Keywords


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