Adsorption and Removal of Pollutants (dyes) from Wastewater Using Different Types of Low-cost Adsorbents: A review


College of science for Women-Chemistry Department/ University of Babylon –Iraq


Discharge of dye-containing wastewater from various industries like textile, leather, paint, cosmetics etc. industries contributes to large amounts of pollution, leading to serious environmental problems such as quality deterioration of fresh water and endangering ecosystems' health. One of the conventional anti-fungal agent in aquaculture which should be eliminated from wastewaters prior to releasing it into natural water resources. Tremendous volumes of colored wastewater are generated in textile, leather, paint, cosmetics etc. industries, causing eternal damage to the water resources. Wastewaters released from dye production and application industries are responsible for water pollution. Untreated disposal of the colored water into receiving water body causes damage to aquatic life and human bodies. Due to the high toxicity of dyes at low concentrations, they must be treated before being discharged into the receiving body of water. Therefore, environmental legislation has imposed severe limits on the discharged effluents' concentrations from dyestuff manufacturing and textile industries.


1. Ogunyemi S.O., Abdallah Y., Zhang M., Fouad H., Hong X., Ibrahim E., Masum M.M.I., Hossain A., Mo J., Li B., 2019. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using different plant extracts and their antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Artif Cells Nanomed, Biotechnol. 47, 341–352.
2. Vaseem M., Umar A., Hahn Y., 2010. ZnO B., nanoparticles: growth, properties, and applications, Metal oxide nanostructures and their applications. 5(1), 12-16.
3. Chaudhuri S.K., Malodia L., 2017, Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage, Appl Nanosci. 7, 501–512.
4. Saratale G.D., Saratale R.G., Cho S.K., Ghodake G., Bharagava R.N., Park Y., Shin H. S. 2020. Investigation of photocatalytic degradation of reactive textile dyes by Portulaca oleracea-functionalized silver nanocomposites and exploration of their antibacterial and antidiabetic potentials. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 833, 155067-155083.
5. Kołodziejczak-Radzimska A., Jesionowski T., 2014. Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application, A Review, Materials. 7, 2833–2881.
6. Weldegebrieal G.K. 2020. Synthesis method, antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanoparticles for azo dyes in wastewater treatment: A review. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 120, 108-140.
7. Aljeboree A.M, 2019. Removal of Pharmaceutical (Paracetamol) by using CNT/TiO2 Nanoparticles. Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 1(11), 199-205.
10. Aljeboree A.M., Hussein F.H., Alkaim A.F., 2019, removal of textile dye (methylene blue mb) from aqueous solution by activated carbon as a model (corn-cob source waste of plant): as a model of environmental enhancement. Plant Archives. 19(2), 906-909.
11. Yaseen D.A., Scholz M., 2019. Textile dye wastewater characteristics and constituents of synthetic effluents: a critical review. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 16,1193–1226.
12.Hussein F.H., 2013. Chemical properties of treated textile dyeing wastewater. Asian J Chem. 25, 9393–9400.
13. Bader Ali T., Aseel Z. A., Aljeboree M., Alkaim F., 2019, Removal of methyl violet (MV) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using activated carbon from pine husks (plant waste sources) Plant Archives, 19(2), 898-901.
14. Ouasif H., Yousfi S., Bouamrani M.L., El Kouali M., Benmokhtar S., Talbi M., 2013. Removal of a cationic dye from wastewater by adsorption onto natural adsorbents. J. Mater. Environ. Sci, 4(1), 1-10.
15. Aljeboree A.M., 2019. Removal of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Antibiotics Pharmaceuticals From Aqueous Systems By ZnO. International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology. 9(2), 125-129.
16. Aljeboree A.M., 2015, Adsorption of methylene blue dye by using modified Fe/Attapulgite clay Research Journal of Pharmaceutical. Biological and Chemical Sciences. 6(4), 778-791.
17. Şolpan D., Güven O., Takács E., Wojnárovits L., Dajka K., 2003. High-energy irradiation treatment of aqueous solutions of azo dyes: steady-state gamma radiolysis experiments. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 67(3-4), 531-534.
18. Shamey R. 2009. Improving the colouration/dyeability of polyolefin fibres. In Polyolefin Fibres. Woodhead Publishing. 363-397.
19. Rahimian R., Zarinabadi S., 2020. A review of studies on the removal of methylene blue dye from industrial wastewater using activated carbon adsorbents made from almond bark. Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 3(3), 251-268.
20. Aseel M., Aljeboree F.A., Alqaragoly M.B., Faiq F., Aydan F., 2020.  Photocatalitic of pharmaceutical tetracycline (TCs) by zinc oxide (ZnO). Journal of Critical Reviews. 7(7),  21-28.
21. Aljeboree A.M., 2020, Spectrophotometric and Colorimetric Determination of Pharmaceutical by Oxidative Coupling Reaction: A Review. Sys Rev Pharm. 11(4), 609- 615.
22. Ramanathan R., Suman S.P., Faustman C., 2020. Biomolecular interactions governing fresh meat color in post-mortem skeletal muscle: A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 68(46), 12779-12787.
23. Barnett J.C., 2007. Synthetic organic dyes, 1856–1901: an introductory literature review of their use and related issues in textile conservation. Studies in Conservation, 52(sup1), 67-77.
24. Gordon P.F. 2012. Organic chemistry in colour. Springer Science & Business. Media,  145-166.
25. Al-Hayder L.J., Al-Hussainawy M.k., 2019, A Kinetics Study of E. Coli and S.aureus Adsorption on Cross-Linked Hydrogels. International Journal of ChemTech Research . 9(11), 334-337.
26. Chen X., Jun L., 2015. Synthesis, identification and application of aldehyde reactive dyes. Dyes Pigmenz. 123, 404-412,
27. Altaa S.A., Alshamsi H.A.H., Al-Hayder L.S.J., 2018. Synthesis and Characterization of rGO/Co3O4 composite as nanoadsorbent for Rhodamine 6G dye removal. Desalin. Water Treat. 114, 320-331.
28. Aljeboree A.M., Alshirifi A.N., 2019. Oxidative coupling of Amoxicillin using 4-Aminoantipyrine: Stability and higher sensitivity. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 1294(5), 0520-0531.
29. Chattopadhyay D. P., C.o.d., 2011. in: M. Clark (Ed.), Handb, Woodhead Publishing, Text. Ind. Dye., 150–183.
30. Basam W., Mahde N.D.R., Layth S., Jasmin H.O., 2018,  Synthesis and characterization of polyacrylamide hydrogel for the controlled release of aspirin. J Pharm Sci & Res. 10(11), 2850-2854.
31. Aljeboree A.M., Alkaim A.F., 2019, Removal of Antibiotic Tetracycline (TCs) from aqueous solutions by using Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as an alternative material. Journal of Physics: Conf Series. 1294, 052059.
32. Ghiyasiyan-Arani M., Salavati-Niasari M., 2016. Facile synthesis, characterization and optical properties of copper vanadate nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic activity. J Mater Sci Mater Electron. 5, 4871–4878.
33. Rauf M.A., 2013. Studies on solvatochromic behavior of dyes using spectral techniques. J Mol Struct. 1042, 45-56.
34. Aljeboree A.M., Al-Janabi S., Alkaim A.F., 2020.  Removal of Pharmaceuticals Phenolic Contaminants by Carbon Nanotubes from Waste Water as a Model of Health: A Review. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 24(05), 21-33.
35. Hihara T., Morita Y.Z., 2017, Photo-oxidation and-reduction of vat dyes on water-swollen cellulose and their lightfastness on dry cellulose. Dyes Pigments. 53(2), 153-177.
36. Sirianuntapiboon S., Jungphungsukpanich S., 2006. Some properties of a sequencing batch reactor system for removal of vat dyes. Bioresour Technol. 97(10), 1243-1252.
37. Sanchez M., -. D.o.d.y.w.n.-i.d., R. Paul (Ed.), Denim, Woodhead Publishing, 107–157.
38. Aljeboree A.M., Alkaim A.F., 2019. Comparative removal of three textile dyes from aqueous solutions by adsorption: as a model (corn - cob sourcs waste) of plants role in environmental enhancement. Plant Archives. 19(1), 1613-1659.
39. Liqaa H., Aseel R.A., Aljeboree M., Firas H., Falah H.,  Ayad H. Alkaim F., 2019. Role of Semiconductors (Zinc Oxide as a Model) for Removal of Pharmaceutical Tetracycline (TCs) from Aqueous Solutions in the Presence of Selective Light. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE). 8(2S3), 138-143.
40. Al-Duri B., 1991. Prediction of binary systems for kinetics of batch adsorption using basic dyes onto activated carbon. Chem Eng Sci. 46(1), 193–204.
41. Arekhi M., Terry L.G., John G.F., Al-Khayat J.A., Castillo A.B., Vethamony P., Clement T.P., 2020. Field and laboratory investigation of tarmat deposits found on Ras Rakan Island and northern beaches of Qatar. Science of The Total Environment. 735, 139516.
42. Ajormal F., Moradnia F., Taghavi Fardood S., Ramazani A., 2020, Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles in Photo-Degradation of Dye: Mini-Review. J Chem Rev. 2(2), 90-102
43. Pagar T., hotekar S., Pansambal S., Oza R., Prasad Marasini B., Facile Plant Extract Mediated Eco-Benevolent Synthesis and Recent Applications of CaO-NPs: A State-of-the-art Review. J Chem Rev. 2(3), 201-210
44. Michael Abegunde S., Solomon Idowu K., Omoniyi Sulaimon A., Plant-Mediated Iron Nanoparticles and their Applications as Adsorbents for Water Treatment–A Review. J Chem Rev. 2(2), 103-113
45. Arekhi M., Jamshidi M. 2018. Influences of inorganic binder on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) and degradation of nano/micro TiO2 containing acrylic composites. Progress in Organic Coatings. 115, 1-8.
46. Hosseinpour J., Bravo L., Samimi-Abianeh O., 2018. Computational study of unsteady cavitating flows and erosion in a fuel nozzle. In ASME 2018 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference. American Society of Mechanical Engineers Digital Collection.
Volume 11, Issue 2
May 2021
Pages 203-212
  • Receive Date: 30 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 23 May 2021
  • Accept Date: 05 November 2020
  • First Publish Date: 01 May 2021