Carcinogenic, Non-carcinogenic and Dermal Sensitization Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Liquid and Solid Lipsticks Highly Used in Kashan, Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences Kashan, Iran

2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

3 Department of Statistics and Public Health, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

4 Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran


The present study aimed to investigate the levels of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in highly used lipsticks in Kashan, Iran. The average concentrations of metals in lipsticks were lower than the maximum admissible limits determined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The highest and lowest levels of systematic exposure dose (SED) were found for Cr and Pb metals, respectively. However, the SEDs of all metals were less than the reference doses (RFD). The hazard index (HI) of non-carcinogenic risk for all metals was less than 1 and there is no threat to consumers in the concentrations of the metals in the lipsticks. Also, for all metals, the margin of exposure (MoE) and the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) were higher and lower than 104 and 10-6, respectively. Therefore, the possibility of carcinogenic risks of these metals due to the use of lipsticks is low. The results showed that the dermal sensitization quantitative risk assessment (SQRA) for Ni was greater than 1 and no dermal sensitization risk is observed.


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Volume 11, Issue 4
October 2021
Pages 437-449
  • Receive Date: 21 November 2019
  • Revise Date: 03 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 01 February 2021
  • First Publish Date: 12 May 2021