Study the Freezing Resistance of some Barley Varieties Using Rates of Electrolyte Leakage

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Soil Science, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran


In order to study the freezing resistance of some barley varieties using rates of electrolyte leakage this experiment was carried out on three barley variety, including Reyhan, kavir, and Nosrat. These varieties are the most important varieties that cultivated in Semnan province. For this experiment, barely seeds were  sown in small containers. The current experiment was carried out as Factorial experimental design plan based on completely randomized design (CRD).The first factor in this study was barley variety in three levels. The second factor was temperature in 5 levels including +4°C, -4°C,  -8°C, -12°C and -15°C. Seedlings in  the stage of  tillering, was sprayed  by  water and then  were put in the incubator for two hours. Then two gram  samples  was selected  and 20 mm deionized water was added and shakes for 24 hours. Then every day for a week  EC  in solution was measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine significant (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) differences between  barley  genotypes. The  differences  between means of barley varieties  were  inspected using Duncan test . The results showed that the percentage of ion leakage between the three cultivars had   significant differences .The effect of temperature on the percentage of ion leakage  in all days, had  significant difference.The highest percentage of ion leakage measurements on all days was at the  -15°C and the lowest percentage of leakage occurred at 4 °c . Kavir variety  in comparison with other varieties had  lower cold tolerance. Interaction of  temperature and genotype factors on  ion  leakage measurements showed that all varieties had significant differences.


1. Liang W., Xie M., Dong D., 1994. Genetic improvement of hazelnut for cold hardiness and culture. Northern Nut Growers Association (U.S.). 85, 149-151.
2. Ito  A., Hamaya  H., Kashimura  Y., 2002. Sugar metabolism in buds during flower bud formation: acomparison of two japanes Pear .
3. Wilson J.M., 1996. The mechanism of chill and drought hardiness. New Physiologist. 97, 257-270.
4. Weiser  C.J.,1970. Achievments in plant chilling stress and injuries studies. Science. 169, 1269-1275.
5. Fowler D.B., Limin A.E., 2007. Progress  in breeding wheat with tolerance to low temperature in different phenological developmental  stages.  Buck  H .,Wheat production  in  stressed  environments.  Dordrecht,  The Netherlands. p. 301–314
7. Fowler D.B., Limin A.E., Ritchie J.T., 1999. Low-temperature tolerance in cereals: model and genetic interpretation. Crop Science. 39, 626–633
8. Rapacz M.,  Tyrka M.,  Kaczmarek W.,  Gut M., Wolanin  B., Mikulski W., 2008. Photosynthetic acclimation  to cold as a potential physiological marker of winter barley freezing tolerance  assessed  under  variable  winter  environment. Agronomy and Crop Science, 194 (1), 61–71
9. Mirzai-Asl, A., Yazdi-Samadi B., Zali A.,  Sadeghian-Motahhar Y ., 2002 . Measuring cold resistance in wheat by laboratory tests. J Sci and technol Agric and Natur Resour. 6, 177-186
10. Beirami zade E., Yazdi-Samadi B., Arshad Y., Bihamta M.R., 2006. A geneticanalysis of frost resistance in ten bread wheat through diallele method. J Agric Sci. 37, 45-59
11. Lyons  J.M.M.R., 1973. Chilling injury in plants. Annu Rev of Plant Physiol and Plant Mol Biol. 24, 445–466
12. Hömmö L.M., 1994. Winterhardiness of winter cereal species in Finnish conditions, with special reference to their frost and snow mould resistance. In K. Dorffling, B. Brettschneider, H. Tantau & K. Pithan, eds. Crop Adaptation to Cool Climates, Workshop, Hamburg, Germany. pp. 65-73.
13. Fowler  D.B., Gusta L.V., 1979. Selection for winter hardiness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). I. Identifcation of genotypic variability.  Crop  Science.  19 (6),  769–772 
14. Azizi H.,   Nezami  A., Khazaie H.R. Nassiri  Mahallati  M.,  2008. Evaluation of cold tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars under controlled conditions.  Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research.  6(2), 343 - 352.
15.   Armoniene R.,  Liatukas Z.,   Brazauskas   G.,  2013. Evaluation of freezing tolerance of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under controlled conditions and in the field. December. 100(100), 417-424
16.Nezami  A., Bagheri  A., Rahimian   H., Kafi  M., Nasiri  Mahalati  M., 2007. Evaluationof freezing tolerance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes under controlled conditions. J Sciand Technol Agric and Natur Resour. 10, 257-269
17. Lyon B.G., Lyon C. E., 1990. Texture profile of broiler pecto-ralis major as influenced by post-mortem deboning time and heat method.  Poult Sci. 69, 329–340
18. Xi-Man K ., Qian Z ., Xin Z., Bao-Dong W., Shu-Juan J., 2020. Transcription factor CaNaCl regulates low-temperature-induced phospholipid degradation in green bell pepper. Journal of Experimental Botany. 71(3), 23, 1078–1091,
19. Liu Q., Kasuga  M., Sakuma  Y., ABE   H., Miura    S., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K., Shinozaki  K.,1998. Two transcription factors, Drebi and Dreb2, with an Erebp/Ap2 DNA binding domain separate two cellular signal transduction pathways in drought and low-temperature-responsive gene expression, respectively, in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell. 10(8), 1391-1406.
20. Dubey J.P., 1998. Toxoplasma gondii oocyst survival under defined temperatures. Journal of Parasitology. 84, 862-865.
21. Campos  R.M.L., 2007. Fatty acid and volatile compounds from salami manufactured with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) extract and pork back fat and meat from pigs fed on diets with partial replacement of maize with rice bran. Food Chemistry. 103, 1159-1167
22. McNabb  K., Takahashi  E., 2000. Freeze damage to loblolly pine seedlings as indicated by conductivity measurements and out planting survival. Research Report,
Auburn University Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative, Auburn.
23. Tinus R., 1996. Root growth potential as an indicator of drought stress history. Tree Physiology. 16, 795-799.