Heavy Metals in Wheat Grain and Its Impact on Human Health: A mini-review

Document Type : Mini Review Article


1 Department of Environmental Health, Food Safety Division, Faculty of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Biotechnology and Medical Plants Research Center, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran


Heavy metals (HMs) form a very varied group of elements that are very diverse in terms of chemical properties and biological functions. Heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil has become a serious environmental problem. These metals are toxic to soil, plants, aquatic life, and human and animal health. These toxic pollutants are caused by natural activities such as volcanoes and mining and smelting metals. These metals are stable in nature, therefore, they accumulate in the soil and agricultural products, and it is necessary to properly understand the relationship between the concentration of heavy metals in the soil and its accumulation in wheat. These metals also interfere with the level of antioxidants in plants and reduce the nutritional value of the product. Consumption of many heavy metals in the diet through the consumption of plants has long-term destructive effects on human health. In this review study, the most important heavy metals in agricultural products, especially wheat, on human health were reported. For this review study, keywords such as Crops, Heavy metal, Human health, Wheat flour were used. The databases searched for in those articles were Google Scholar, SID, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, and ISI search engines. Given that bread is the dominant force of the Iranian people, so the quality study of wheat in the country's consumer market in order to maintain the health of consumers seems necessary. Therefore, we need to inform people about this, so this review article explains the presence of HMs in bread and its disadvantages.


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Volume 12, Issue 3
July 2022
Pages 421-426
  • Receive Date: 22 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 20 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 05 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 06 April 2021