Determination of Ultra Trace Amounts of Carmoisine in Food Specimens by Ultrasound-assisted Surfactant-enhanced Emulsification Microextraction Method Coupled with UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student, Young Researchers and Elite Club, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahr-e-Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


In this research, an ultrasound-assisted surfactant emulsification microextraction technique was established as a facile, practicable and eco-friendly method for preconcentration of carmoisine (CMS) before its spectrophotometric measurement. Zephiramine and CCl4 were selected as the emulsifier and organic extractant solvent respectively. Box–Behnken design was employed for the optimization of various influencing factors in the extraction process. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration and enrichment factors were 666 and 630 respectively.. The limit of detection (LOD) of the designed analytical that was calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was 0.15 ng. mL-1. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.47 ng. mL-1 and the working dynamic range was 0.5-80 ng. mL-1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9995. At the end, the applicability of the designed extraction technique for the quantitation of CMS in four real specimes was also inspected and all of the calculated recovery values were between 97.5-104.2% showed the designed technique can be employed for CMS measurement in real specimens.  .


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Volume 12, Issue 3
July 2022
Pages 409-419
  • Receive Date: 16 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 17 March 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 April 2021
  • First Publish Date: 01 April 2021