The Effect of the Unpleasant Odor of Gohar Rood River in Rasht on the Quality of Life of Human Communities

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Environment, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran

10.22034/jchr.2021.1911778.1198

Abstract

Unpleasant odor caused by sewage disposal in rivers, in areas where proper and adequate arrangements have not been made for wastewater treatment, is one of the obvious indicators of air pollution affecting a large population of people living in these areas. This study aimed at investigating the effects of odor-producing gases in the Gohar Rood river in Rasht, as one of the most polluted rivers in northern Iran, on human communities. In this research, the descriptive-analytical method has been used as a comparative analysis based on hierarchical weighting. The statistical population in the communities near and far from this river was 420 and 115 people, respectively. In order to analyze the studied variables, SPSS software, and statistical methods of independent t-test and Levene test were used. The results of a comparative study of the effects of unpleasant odor in communities near and far from this river using t-test of two independent groups and Levene test indicated that clinical symptoms (33.19; 50.86), anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbance (11.89; 17.12), social dysfunction (15.02; 23.13) and depressive symptoms (5.52; 7.16) of communities exposed to the unpleasant smell of this river were significantly higher than other communities (p <0.05). Therefore, people exposed to the unpleasant odor of Gohar Rood river were more dissatisfied with the living conditions in their surroundings and they had a worse quality of life.

Keywords


1. Rahnamaei M., Faraji A., Hatami nejad H., Azimi A., 2013. An analysis of the concept of urban quality of life, Babolsar. Geography and territorial spatial arrangement. 5, 49-76.
2. Shamai A., Shahsavar A. 2017. Assessing the quality of urban life in new cities (Case study: New Town of Parand). Territorial Geographical. 14(54), 36-48.
3. Rezvani M., Motakan A., Senari H., 2019. Development and measurement of urban quality of life. Urban and Regional Studies and Research. 6(23), 45-71.
4.Conti C., Guarino M., Bacenetti J., 2020. Measurements techniques and models to assess odor annoyance: A review. Environ. Int. 134, 105-118.
5. Tavakoli B., 2017. Identification of polluting resources of Zarjoub and Gohar-rood rivers, General Department of Environment, Gilan, 1st ed. pp. 24.
6. Mehravaran B., 2015. Theoretical study of flavor reduction with ultrasonic hybrid system, superconductivity and surface absorption. Environ Sci Technol. 19(4), 73-85.
7. Talaei Khozani A., 2016. Prevent the production of odor and corrosion caused by hydrogen sulfide in sewage collection networks. Environ Sci Eng. 2(4), 24-30.
8. 14. Weitensfelder L., Moshammer H., Öttl D., Payer I., 2019. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 26, 9806–9815.
9. Team of microbiology assistants, 2018. The role of negative ions in reducing air microbial contamination. https://microbi.ir/author/fba1368/, 2018.
10. Moya T., Philomena M., 2019. Appraisal and identification of different sources of smell by primary school children in the air quality test chamber of the Sense Lab. Intell Build Int. 44(10), 2106–2113.
11. Oettl D., Kropsch M., Mandl M., 2018. Odour assessment in the vicinity of a pig-fatting farm using field inspections (EN 16841-1) and dispersion modeling. Atmos Environ. 181, 54–60.
12. Zhang L., Schryver p., Boon N., 2020. Chemical and biological technologies for hydrogen sulfide emission control in sewer systems: A review. Water Res. 42, 1-12.
13.Aatamila M., Verkasalo P.K., Korhonen M.J., Viluksela M.K., Pasanen K.,Tiittanen P., Nevalainen A., 2020. Odor annoyance near waste treatment centers: a population-based study in Finland. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 60, 412–418.
14. Demirkan, G., 2018. Infant sleep [Master of Science], School of Engineering and Sciences, İzmir Institute of Technology, Turkey, 134.
15. Sucker K., Muller F., Bischoff M., Winneke G., 2004. Assessment of frequency, intensity, and hedonic tone of environmental odours in the field: a comparison of trained and untrained residents. VDI Berichte. 1850, 219-288.
16. Sakawi Z., Sharifeh S.A., Mastura O., Mahmud M., 2011. Community perception of odor pollution from the landfill. Res J Environ. 3(2), 142-145.
17. Johnson B.N., Sobel N., 2017. Methods of building an olfactometer with known concentration outcomes. Methods160. 2, 231-245.
18. Brancher M., Piringer M., Franco D., Belli Filho P., Lisboa H., Schauberger G., 2019. Assessing the inter-annual variability of separation distances around odour sources to protect the residents from odour annoyance. J Environ Health Perspect. 79, 11–24.
19.Shanahan L., Gottfried J., 2014. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.Brain Res. 208, 309–343.
20. Sharida A., Hamdan A., Al-Hashimi M., 2019. Smart cities: The next urban evolution in delivering a better quality of life. Hybrid Metaheuristic Algorithms Image Process. 846, 287–298.
21. Byli´nski H., Gebicki J., Namiesnik J., 2019. Evaluation of health hazard due to emission of volatile organic compounds from various processing units of wastewater treatment plant. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 16, 171-184.
22. Steinheider B., 1999. Environmental Odours and Somatic complaint. Zbl Hyg Umweltmed. 202, 101-119.
23. Blanes-Vidal V., Suh H., Nadimi E., Lofstrom P., Ellermann T., Andersen H.V., Schwartz J., 2012. Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution from livestock operations and perceived annoyance among citizens. Environ. 40, 44–50.
24. Ulutas K., Pekey H., Demir S., Dinçer F., 2017. Assessment and Regulation of Odour Impacts. J Environ PlannMan. 52(2), 217–236.
25. Mohamed A., Eltarkawe L., Shelly L., 2018. The Impact of Industrial Odors on the Subjective Well-Being of Communities in Colorado. Environmental Research and Public Health. 28, 56-68.
26. Petra K.J., Piver W.T., Elixhauser A., Olsen L.M., Portier C.J., 2003. Temperature, Air Pollution and Hospitalization for Cardiovascular Diseases among Elderly People in Denver. Environ Health Perspect. 111, 1312–1317.
27. Morgan B., Hansgen R., Hawthorne W., Miller S.L., 2015. Industrial odor sources and air pollutant concentrations in Globeville, a Denver, Colorado neighborhood. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 65, 1127–1140.
28. Vantarakis A., Paparrodopoulos S., Kokkinos P., Vantarakis G., Fragou K., Detorakis I., 2016. Impact on the Quality of Life When Living Close to a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Environmental and Public Health. 42(2), 26-35.
29. Luginaah I.N., Martin Taylor S., Elliott S.J., Eyles J.D., 2012. Community reappraisal of the perceived health effects of a petroleum refinery. Soc Sci Med. 55, 47–61.
30. Dimsdale J.E., 2008. Psychological Stress and Cardiovascular Disease. JAm Coll Cardiol. 51, 1237–1246.
31. Baldwin C., Bell I., Guerra S., Quan S., 2014. Associations between chemical odor intolerance and sleep disturbances in community-living adults. Sleep Med. 5, 53-59.
32. Batalhone S., Nogueira J., Mueller B., 2014. Economics of air pollution: Hedonic price model and smell consequences of sewage treatment plants in urban areas. Department of Economics Working Paper. 2, 234-245.
33. Fries K., 2016. Controlling Odours from Wastewater Treatment Plants. J Environ Plann Man. 51(2), 233–257.
34. Wojnarowska M., Sołtysik M., Sagan A., Stobiecka J., Plichta J., Plichta G., 2020. Impact of Odor Nuisance on Preferred Place of Residence. Sustainability. 42(1), 112-125.
35. Shokri E., Water quality report of Zarjoub, Gohar-rood and Pirbazar rivers, Iranian water quality standard, Guilan General Department of Environmental Protection, 1nd ed, 2018, P. 103.
36. Mohammadi Golrang A., 2013, Environmental Effects of the largest landfill in the north of Iran, 3rd International conference on environmental planning and management, Ardebil University, Iran.
37. Green Spectrum Consulting Engineers., Protection and operation management of Guilan Regional Water Company, Final report of water quality monitoring services of Pirbazar, Gohar-rood, Zarjoub rivers, and 25 wells. Regional water of Guilan, 1st ed , 2012, 1, 49-50.
38. Bullers S., 2005. Environmental stressors, perceived control and health: the case of residents near large-scale hog farms in eastern North Carolina. Hum Ecol. 33(1), 1-16.
39. Bluyssen P.M., 2017. Health, Comfort and Performance of Children in Classrooms – New Directions for Research. Indoor Built Environ. 26(8), 1040–1050.
40. Shokouhi A., 2017. Sulfide Hydrogen. Health, Safety, and Energy Monthly. 2(8), 103-116.
48. Pichon A.M., Coppin G., Cayeux I., Porcherot C., Sander D., Delplanque S., 2015. Sensitivity of Physiological Emotional Measures to Odors Depends on the Product and the Pleasantness Ranges Used.  Front Psychol. 6, 1821- 1833.
49. Warrenburg S., 2005. Effects of fragrance on emotions: moods and physiology. ChemSenses.30, 248–249.
50. Weitensfelder L., Moshammer H., Öttl D., Payer I., 2019. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Environ Sci. Pollut. Res. 26, 9806–9815.
51. Brancher M., Griffiths K.D., Franco D., de Melo Lisboa H., 2017. A review of odour impact criteria in selected countries around the world. Chemosphere. 168, 1531-1570.
52. Isik F., Cagatay U., 2016. Determining Influence Area Of Rubbish Dump and Treatment Facilities Based On Geographic Information Systems: The Case of Manisa, Paradoks Economics. Int J Sociol Policy. 11(1), 68-86.
53. Kempa O., Krajewska M., Palicki S., Rącka I., Wójta-Kempa M., 2015. Students Preferences on Housing Market in Polish Cities. Real Estate Management and Valuation. 22(1), 90-102.
54. Berg A.B., Radziemska M., Adamcová D., Zloch J., Vaverková M.D., 2018. Assessment strategies for municipal selective waste collection regional waste management. J Ecol Eng. 19, 33-41.