Adsorption of Copper (II) Ions on a Montmorillonite Clay and its Application as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Knoevenagel Condensation Reaction

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Laboratory of Organic Synthesis and Extraction Processes, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kénitra, Morocco

2 Laboratory of Organic, Organometallic and Theoretical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ibn Tofaïl University, Kenitra, Morocco

3 Laboratory of Organic Synthesis and Extraction Processes, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kénitra, Morocco.

Abstract

In the present study, a simplest and most effective method was applied to removal of Cu2+ ions from an aqueous solution using Montmorillonite clay, nontoxic and abundantly available as an adsorbent. The used adsorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with EDX analysis. Adsorption experiments were conducted under various conditions,.i.e., contact time , initial concentration,  pH of Cu(II) ions solution, adsorbent mass, and particle size . The results proved that the adsorption of Cu(II) ions by Montmorillonite clay was favorable at pH=5.5 with an extraction yield of 85% after 30 min contact. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In all cases, the adsorption process fitted the second-order kinetics well, and the isotherm equation due to Freundlich showed good fits with the experimental data. In order to value our Cu-Montmorillonite clay (Cu-MC) support, we thought of applying it as recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the condensation of Knoevenagel. The model reaction was carried out at room temperature, using a quantity of 0.5 mg of catalyst and a volume of  2ml of ethanol, the reaction yield was excellent (87%). The recyclable solid catalyst was effective for five successive cycles, indicating that this clay is a potentially eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst.In the present study, a simplest and most effective method was applied to removal of Cu2+ ions from an aqueous solution using Montmorillonite clay, nontoxic and abundantly available as an adsorbent. The used adsorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with EDX analysis. Adsorption experiments were conducted under various conditions,.i.e., contact time , initial concentration,  pH of Cu(II) ions solution, adsorbent mass, and particle size . The results proved that the adsorption of Cu(II) ions by Montmorillonite clay was favorable at pH=5.5 with an extraction yield of 85% after 30 min contact. The equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In all cases, the adsorption process fitted the second-order kinetics well, and the isotherm equation due to Freundlich showed good fits with the experimental data. In order to value our Cu-Montmorillonite clay (Cu-MC) support, we thought of applying it as recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the condensation of Knoevenagel. The model reaction was carried out at room temperature, using a quantity of 0.5 mg of catalyst and a volume of  2ml of ethanol, the reaction yield was excellent (87%). The recyclable solid catalyst was effective for five successive cycles, indicating that this clay is a potentially eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst.

Keywords


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Volume 12, Issue 3
July 2022
Pages 379-396
  • Receive Date: 24 October 2020
  • Revise Date: 06 December 2020
  • Accept Date: 11 January 2021
  • First Publish Date: 08 February 2021