The Relationship between ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups with Toxoplasmosis in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq

Document Type : Original Article


1 General Directorate of Education in Thi-Qar , Ministry of Education, Al Nasiriya city, Iraq

2 Southern Technical University, Amara Technical Institute. Amara City, Iraq


Toxoplasma gondii infects people via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that stimulates humoral and cellular immune responses with specific antibodies. Within this same system, the presence of ABO blood group glycoconjugates also arises and can affect human sensitivity to T. gondii  infection. During this paper, the frequency distribution of ABO, as well as Rh blood groups in different phenotypes, were evaluated to investigate potential relationships with toxoplasmosis and to estimate the incidence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Al- Nasiriya city. Data-including serology test results for toxoplasmosis and ABO phenotypes of blood groups in women attending Bint-AL Huda and AL-Shatra Hospital in Nasiriya city were collected from starting of (2013) until   the end of (2014). It's have been analyzed using version 20 of SPSS. Results of 2861 participating women indicate high prevalence of toxoplasmosis are 1018 (35.6%), 767 (26.8%), 694 (24.3%) and 382 (13.4%) for"B, A, O, and AB"groups respectively. A large portion of them was Rh+ (70.33%). In conclusion, this research was a significant relationship between blood groups, Rh factor and toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma was relatively high among women in Al-Nasiriya city and Rhesus positive factor, and Blood type B individuals were most affected.


1. Sudan V., Jaiswal A.K., Shanker D., 2013. Recent trends in the diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis. Clin Rev Opinions. 5(2), 11–7.  
2. Robert-Gangneux F., Darde M.L., 2012. Epidemiology of and diagnostic strategies for toxoplasmosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25(2),  264-296.
3.  Dubey J.P., Hotea I., Olariu T.R., Jones J.L., Darabus G., 2014. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania. Parasitology. 141(3), 311–25.
4. AL Azawi B.M., AL-Waeli F.MS., 2015. Studies on the effect of infected cases of parasite Toxoplasma gondii on some sex hormones. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4(10), 2413-2423.
 5. AL-Nakib W., Ibrahim M.E., Hathout H., Moussa M.A., Deverajan L.V., Thornburn H., Yusuf A.M., 1983. Seroepidmiology of viral and Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy among Arab women of child breading age in Kuwait.Intr. Epidermal. 12(2), 220.
6.  Abdel –Hafez S.K., Shbeeb I., Ismail N.S., Abdel-Rahman F., 1986. Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii in habitually abortion women and other adults from north Jordan. Folia Parasitol. 33, 7-13.
7. AL-Meshari A.A., Chowdhury M.N., Chattopadhyay S.K., Desilva S.K., 1989. Screening of Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Int J Gyanaecol Obstet. 29(1), 39-45.
8. Soliman M., EL-Naggar H.M., EL-Chareb M.E., 2001. Toxoplasma antibodies in normal and complicated pregnancy. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 31, 37-46.
9.  AL-Sabbak  M., 1999. The rate of affected toxoplasmosis out come on pregnancy. Basra J Soc. 51, 58-92.
10.  Abdul-Ridha R.A.H., 2000. Biochemical changes in the aborted  toxoplasmosis seropositive  women .M.Sc.Thesis. College of Science. AL-Mustansiriyah University. pp 70 
11. AL-Deen M.M., 2002. Seroepidemiological study on toxoplasmosis in women with history of abortion. M.Sc. Thesis College of Medicine. AL-Nahrain University. pp 139
12. Kareem S.S., 2008. Prevalence, serodiagnosis and some immunological aspects of toxoplasmosis  among women   in Baghdad province. M.Sc. Thesis. College of health and Medical Technology. Technical Foundation.  
13. AL-Shikhly M.A.H., 2010.  Early detection of toxoplasmosis percentage in pre-marital   females by immunological methods. M.Sc. Thesis. College of Science. Baghdad University. pp 147.
14. Alemu G., Mama  M., 2016. Assessing ABO/Rh blood group frequency and association with asymptomatic malaria among blood donors attending Arba Minch blood bank, South Ethiopia. Malaria research and treatment.‏
15. Pourhassan  Abolfazl., 2014. Association between ABO blood/rhesus grouping and hepatitis B and C: a case-control study. Pak J Biol Sci. 17(6), 868-71.
16. Kaya H., Gundo M., Akarsu E., Kiki I., Tekin B.,  1999. The distrubition of blood groups in Erzurum. Medical Journal of Atatürk University. 31, 20-22.
 17.  Khan M.S., Subhan F., Tahir F., Kazi B.M.,  Dil A.S.,  2004. Sultan S. Prevalence of blood groups and Rh factor in Bannu region. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 43(1), 8–10.
18.  Naeini K.M., Soureshjani E.H., Jafari M., Parchami S., Karimi G., Abdizadeh R., 2019. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Volunteer Blood Donors Using Serological and Molecular Methods from Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Southwest Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 12(5), 91042
19. Shaapan R.M., Abd El Wah W.M., Abd El Had MED., Elfadaly H.A., Ahmed Hamd D.,  2018. Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors among blood donors. Asian J Epidemiol. 11(2), 52–8.
20. Kolbekova P.,  Kourbatova E.,  Novotna  M.,  Kodym P.,  Flegr J.,  2007.  New  and  old  risk-factors  for  Toxoplasma  gondii  infection:  prospective  cross-sectional  study  among military personnel in the Czech Republic. Clin Microbiol Infect. 13(10), 12-7.
21. Flegr J., Novotna M., Fialova A., Kolbekova P., Gasova Z., 2010. The influence of RhD phenotype on toxoplasmosis- and age-associated changes in personality profile of blood donors. Folia Parasitologica. 57(2), 143–150.
22.  Skallova A.,  Novotna  M.,  Kolbekova  P.,  Gasova  Z., Vesely  V., Flegr J., 2005. Decreased level  of  novelty seeking  in blood  donors  infected  with  Toxoplasma.Neuroendocrinol Lett. 26, 480–486
23. Mahmoudvand H., Saedi Dezaki E., Soleimani S., Baneshi M.R., Kheirandish F., Ezatpour B., 2015. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection among healthy blood donors in south-east of Iran. Parasite Immunol. 37(7), 362–7.
24. Shaddel M., Mirzaii-Dizgah I., Hoshangi M., 2014. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody levels in blood supply of Shiraz Blood Transfusion Institute, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 9(1), 120–4.
25.  Elsheikha H.M., Azab M.S., Abousamra N.K., Rahbar M.H., Elghannam D.M., Raafat D., 2009. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among asymptomatic blood donors in Egypt. Parasitol Res. 104(6), 1471–6.
26. Rodrigues A.CF., Uezato S., Vono M.B., Pandossio T., Spegiorin LC.JF., Oliani A.H., 2011. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system. The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 17(2), 184-189
27. Kolbekova P., Kourbatova E., Novotna M., Kodym P., Flegr J.,  2007. New and old risk-factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection: prospective cross-sectional study among military personnel in the Czech Republic. Clinical Microbiology Infection. 13(10), 12-7.
 28.  Boulanger M.J., Tonkin M.L., Crawford J., 2010. Apicomplexan parasite adhesins: novel strategies for targeting host cell carbohydrates. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 20(5), 551-9.
 29.  Anstee D.J., 2010. The relationship between blood groups and disease. Blood. 115(23), 4635-43.
 30. Carruthers V., Hakansson S., Giddings O.K., Sibley D., 2000. Toxoplasma gondii uses sulfated proteoglycans for substrate and host cell attachment. Infect Immun. 68(7), 4005-11.
31. Alzamily I.A.,  Fadhil A.K., 2020. Susceptibility of ABO system for infection of COVID-19. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research . 12(2). 353
32. Flegr J., Klose J., Novotna M., Beren-reitterova M., Havlice J., 2009. Increased incidence of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma infected military drivers and protective effect RhD molecule revealed by a large-scale prospective cohort study. BMC Infectious Disease. (9), e72.
33. Parnell L.L., 2014. Examination of Possible Protective Effect of Rhesus D Positive Blood Factor on Toxoplasma-related Depressive Symptoms in Pregnancy. PhD. College of Nursing University of South Flori-da.
34. Kustu S., Inwood W., 2006. Biological gas channels for NH3 and CO2: evidence that Rh (Rhesus) proteins are CO2 channels. Transfusion Clinical Biology. (13), 103–110.  
 35. Novotna M., Havlicek J., Smith A.P., Kol-bekova P., Skallova A., Klose J., 2008. Toxoplasma and reaction time: role of toxoplasmosis in the origin, preservation and geographical distribution of Rh blood group polymorphism. Parasitology. (135), 1253–1261.
36. WHO. Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases. en/ health-topics/disease-prevention/ food-safety (2015).
37. Robert-Gangneux F., Darde M.L., 2012. Epidemiology of and diagnostic strategies for toxoplasmosis. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 25, 264-296.
Volume 11, Issue 4
October 2021
Pages 367-373
  • Receive Date: 02 November 2020
  • Revise Date: 19 January 2021
  • Accept Date: 25 January 2021
  • First Publish Date: 26 January 2021