Iodized Salt: Assessment of Nutritional Status, Iodine Intake and Iodine Exposure

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran

10.22034/jchr.2021.1906259.1164

Abstract

Food grade salt is the main carrier for iodine fortification to prevent iodine-deficiency disorders in iodine-deficient regions. Excessive and also too low iodine content in salt could cause diseases and human health risks. This study is aimed to investigate the iodine content of edible salts produced in Semnan province (Iran) and also the iodine intake and exposure were estimated in population. Iodine content of 75 salt samples from 25 different brands produced in Semnan province were measured using titration method. Urinary iodine was determined in 240 children (8-12 years old). Iodine intake and exposure was determined based on the defined variables. The results indicated that the mean iodine concentration of 32% iodized salt samples were not according to acceptable range (30-50 mg.kg-1(set by Iranian National Standard Institute. The urinary iodine median was 161 µg.L-1 and in 7.5% of studied population was more than 300 µg.L-1. The mean of daily iodine intake in all samples was 298.4 ± 79.6 µg per day. Obtained iodine exposure values demonstrated that the status of iodine intake in Semnan province was at optimal nutrition and no risk of iodine deficiency treat the population.

Keywords


1. Pearce E.N., Andersson M., Zimmermann M.B., 2013. Global iodine nutrition: where do we stand in 2013? Thyroid. 23(5), 523-528.
2. Teng X., Shan Z., Chen Y., Lai Y., Yu J., Shan L., Bai X., Li Y., Li N., Li Z., 2011. More than adequate iodine intake may increase subclinical hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis: a cross-sectional study based on two Chinese communities with different iodine intake levels. European Journal of Endocrinology. 164(6), 943-950.
3. Andersson M., de Benoist B., Rogers L., 2010. Epidemiology of iodine deficiency: salt iodisation and iodine status. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 24(1), 1-11.
4. Untoro J., Timmer A., Schultink W., 2010. The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 24(1), 89-99.
5. Delshad H., Azizi F., 2017. Review of Iodine Nutrition in Iranian Population in the Past Quarter of Century. International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 15(4), e57758.
6. Delshad H., Mehran L., Azizi F., 2010. Appropriate iodine nutrition in Iran: 20 years of success. Acta Medica Iranica. 361-366.
7. Candido A.C., Morais N., Dutra L.V., Pinto C.A., Franceschini S.C., Alfenas R., 2019. Insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women in different regions of the world: a systematic review. Archives of endocrinology and metabolism. 63(3), 306-311.
8. Zimmermann M.B., Andersson M., 2012. Update on iodine status worldwide. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity. 19(5), 382-387.
9. Zimmermann MB., Boelaert K., 2015. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 3(4), 286-295.
10. Aakre I., Strand T.A., Bjøro T., Norheim I., Barikmo I., Ares S., Alcorta M.D., Henjum S., 2016. Thyroid function
among breastfed children with chronically excessive iodine intakes. Nutrients. 8(7), 398-409.
11. Liang Z., Xu C., Luo Y.J., 2017. Association of iodized salt with goiter prevalence in Chinese populations: a continuity analysis over time. Military Medical Research. 4(8), 1-11.
12. Gu F., Ding G., Lou X., Wang X., Mo Z., Zhu W., Zhou J., Mao G., 2016. Incidence of thyroid diseases in Zhejiang Province, China, after 15 years of salt iodization. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 36, 57-64.
13. Leung A.M., Braverman L.E., 2014. Consequences of excess iodine. Nature Reviews Endocrinology. 10(3), 136-142.
14. Vithanage M., Herath I., Achinthya S., Bandara T., Weerasundara L., Mayakaduwa S., Jayawardhana Y., Kumarathilaka P., 2016. Iodine in commercial edible iodized salts and assessment of iodine exposure in Sri Lanka. Archives of Public Health. 74(1), 21.
15. Stan C., 2006. Codex Alimentarius Commission. The Codex Standard for Food Grade Salt. 150, 1-9.
16. Pasdar Y., Mohammadi G., Mansouri A., Alghasi S., Darbandi M., Mahmoodi M., Niazi P., 2016. Iodine content in salt used in Kermanshah, 2013-2014. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 26(135), 144-148.
17. Molaei Tavani S., Hoseinzadeh E., Jafari N., 2019. Measurement of Iodine in Consumed Salts at the Distribution Level and Assessing Post-Training Attitude Status in Providers in Qom. Pajouhan Scientific Journal. 17(3), 55-63.
18. Harith A.A., Kuay L.K., Azlin M.S., Mahmud N.A., Ismail F., 2020. Impact of universal salt iodization programme towards iodine status of pregnant women in sarawak. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences. 6(6), 98-108.
19. Pourgheysari H., Moazeni M., Ebrahimi A., 2012. Heavy metal content in edible salts in Isfahan and estimation of their daily intake via salt consumption. International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering. 1(1), 41-45.
20. Shamsollahi H.R., Nadarloo M., Rastkari N., Sillanpää M., Yousefi M., Pasalari H., Nabizadeh R., 2019. Monitoring of salt iodisation programme in Iran; health outcomes, shortages and perspective. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 52, 6-11.
21. Iranian National Standardization Organization., 2016. Food Grade Iodized Salt Specifications and test methods. 4th Revision, 1195, 1-367.
22. Raftani Amiri Z., Solaimani S., 2018. valuation of the purity and iodine content of edible salts in the supply level of Kermanshah province. Food Science and Technology. 15(82), 17-23.
23. Ferede A., Abera M., Belachew T., 2018. Knowledge and Attitude about Prevention of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) among Women and Quantification of Iodide found in Table Salt in Central Highland of Ethiopia. Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research. 12(2), 9127-9135.
24. Hawas S., Lemma S., Mengesha S., Demissie H., Segni M., 2016. Proper utilization of adequatly iodized salt at house hold level and associated factores in Asella Town Arsi Zone Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study. J Food Process Technol. 7(4), 573-580.
25. Mirmiran P., Sheikh al-Islam R., Hedayati M., Hajipour R., Sarbazi N., Azizi F., 2002. Goiter prevalence and urinary iodine levels in 8-10 year old students in the province. Pejouhesh dar Pezeshki (Research in Medicine). 26 (1), 71-75.
26. AsadiKaram G., Sajadi M.A., Sheykh Fatollahi M., Zangi Abadi A., Nayimi L., Mahmoodi M., 2004. Prevalence of endemic goiter and its association with iodine deficiency and thyroid hormones in 6-18 year-old students in Rafsanjan in 2000. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services. 12(2), 68-72.
27. Rostami R., Ebrahimi M., Beiranvand A., Aghasi MR., Estabraghnia H., Nourooz-Zadeh J., 2012. Evaluation of goiter prevalence and urinary iodine excretion among schoolchildren in urmia county. Studies in Medical Sciences. 23(3), 324-329