Isolation of Cerebroside from Gynura procumbens Leaves and Biological Activities of the Leaves Extracts

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh


Several plants have been used in folk medicine to treat various types of diseases. Gynura procumbens (G. procumbens), a medicinal plant is widely used in traditional treatment of many aliments due to the presence of potent bioactive components. In this study,G. procumbens leaves were extracted with three different polarities of solvents viz., ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (MeOH) and methanol-water (MeOH-H2O). A cerebroside and a pure compound were isolated from the EA and MeOH crude extracts respectively. Antibacterial, antifungal activities and cytotoxicity of the crude extracts of G. procumbens leaves were investigated using six bacterial strains (three gram positive and three gram negative), one fungal strain and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, respectively. The EA extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity, whereas MeOH and MeOH-H2O extracts exhibited very minute sort of sensitivities. The MeOH-H2O extract showed a significant cytotoxic activity having LC50 of 3.98 μg/mL on the other hand EA and MeOH exhibited mild and moderate cytotoxic activities having LC50 values of 63.10 and 4.47 μg/mL, respectively. These results demonstrate the presence of potential bioactive components in the studied crude extracts of the G. procumbens leaves.


1. Atanasov A.G., Waltenberger B., Pferschy-Wenzig E.M., Linder T., Wawrosch C., Uhrin P., Temml V., Wang L., Schwaiger S., Heiss E.H., Rollinger J.M., Schuster D., Breuss J.M., Bochkov V., Mihovilovic M.D., Kopp B., Bauer R., Dirsch V.M., Stuppne H., 2015. Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: A review Biotechnol Adv. 33(8), 1582–1614.
2. Doughari J.H., 2006. Antimicrobial activity of Tamarindus indica Linn.Trop J Pharm Res.5(2), 597–603.
3. Maghrani M., Zeggwagh N.A., Michel J.B., Eddouks M., 2005. Antihypertensive effect of Lepidium sativum L. in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 100(1–2), 193–197.
4. Dash P.R., Mou K.M., 2016. A comprehensive review on Gynura procumbens leaves. Int J Pharmacognosy. 3(4), 167–174.
5. Tan H.L., Chan K.G., Pusparajah P., Lee L.H., Goh B.H., 2016. Gynura procumbens: An overview of the biological activities. Front Pharmacol.7, 52.
6. Rohin M.A.K., Jumli M.N., Ridzwan N., Baig A.A., Latif A.Z.A., Hadi N.A., 2018. Effect of Gynura procumbens extracts on anti-proliferative activity and its associated morphological changes of human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U-87). Pharmacogn J. 10(3), 492–496.
7. Rosidah, Yam M.F., Sadikun A., Ahmad M., Akowuah G.A., Asmawi M.Z., 2009. Toxicology evaluation of standardized methanol extract of Gynura procumbens. J Ethnopharmacol. 123(2), 244–249.
8. Nawawi A., Nakamura N., Hattori M., Kurokawa M., Shiraki K., 1999. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian medicinal plants on the infection of herpes simplex virus type 1. Phyther Res. 13(1), 37–41.
9. Akowuah G.A., Sadikun A., Mariam A., 2002. Flavonoid identification and hypoglycaemic studies of the butanol fraction from Gynura procumbens. Pharm Biol. 40(6), 405-410.
10. Li W.L., Ren B.R., Min-Zhuo, Hu.Y., Lu, C.G., Wu, J.L., Chen, J., Sun, S., 2009. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants in genus Gynura Cass. Am J Chin Med. 37(05), 961-966.
11. Iskander M.N., Song Y., Coupar I.M., Jiratchariyakul W., 2002. Antiinflammatory screening of the medicinal plant Gynura procumbens. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 57(3–4), 233–244.
12. Wiart C., 2006. Medicinal plants of the Asia-Pacific: drugs for the future? World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Singapore.
13. Lam S.K., Idris A., Bakar Z.A., Ismail R., 1998. Gynura procumbens and blood pressure in the rat: preliminary study. Asia Pac J of Pharmacol. 13(S1), S14-S15.
14. Kim M., Lee H.J., Wiryowidagdo S., Kim H.K., 2006. Antihypertensive effects of Gynura procumbens extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Med Food. 9(4), 587–590.
15. Hoe S.Z., Kamaruddin M.Y., Lam S.K., 2007. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme activity by a partially purified fraction of Gynura procumbens in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Med Princ Pract. 16(3), 203–208.
16. Zhang X.F., Tan B.K.H., 2000. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Gynura procumbens on serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Singap Med J. 41(1), 9-13.
17. Agustina D., Wasito W., Haryana S.M., Supartinah A., 2006. Anticarcinogenesis effect of Gynura procumbens (Lour) Merr on tongue carcinogenesis in 4NQO-induced rat. Dent J. (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi). 39(3), 126-132.
18. Lee H.J., Lee B.C., Chung J.H., Wiryowidagdo S., Chun W., Kim S.S., Kim H., Choe M., 2007. Inhibitory effects of an aqueous extract of Gynura procumbens on human mesangial cell proliferation. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 11(4), 145–148.
19. Ashraf K., Halim H., Lim S.M., Ramasamy K., Sultan S., 2020. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative studies of four different extracts of Orthosiphon stamineus, Gynura procumbens and Ficus deltoidea. Saudi J Biol Sci. 27(1), 417-432.
20. Yam M.F., Sadikun A., Asmawi M.Z., Rosidah., 2008. Antioxidant potential of Gynura procumbens. Pharm Biol. 46(9), 616–625.
21. Afandi A., Sadikun A., Ismail S., 2014. Antioxidant properties of Gynura procumbens extracts and their inhibitory effects on two major human recombinant cytochrome P450s using a high throughout luminescence assay. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 7, 36-41.
22. Mahmood A.A., Mariod A.A., Al-Bayaty F., Abdel-Wahab S.I., 2010. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of Gynura procumbens leaf extract against experimentally-induced gastric lesions in rats. J Med Plants Res. 4(8), 685–691.
23. Santhosh R.S., Suriyanarayanan B., 2014. Plants: A source for new antimycobacterial drugs. Planta Med. 80(1), 9–21.
24. Rahman A.F.M.M., Asad M.S.A., 2013. Chemical and biological investigations of the leaves of Gynura procumbens. Int J Biosci. 3(4), 36–43.
25. Bauer A.W., Kirby W.M., Sherris J.C., Turck M., 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol. 45(4), 493-496.
26. Meyer B.N., Ferrigni N.R., Putnam J.E., 1982. Brine shrimp: A convenient general bioassay for active plant constituents. Planta Med. 45, 31-34.
27. Chen L., Wang J.J., Zhang G.G., Song H.T., Qin L.P., 2009. A new cerebroside from Gynura divaricata. Nat Prod Res. 23(14), 1330–1336.
28. Hu J.W., Wu J., Li X.H., Huang B.H., Yuan E., Wu L., Ma G.Q., 2019. A New Cerebroside from the Roots of Gynura procumbens. Chem Nat Compd. 55(6), 1053-1055.
29. Jarikasem S., Charuwichitratana S., Siritantikorn S., Chantratita W., Iskander M., Frahm A.W., Jiratchariyakul W., 2013. Antiherpetic effects of Gynura procumbens. Evid.-Based Complementary Altern Med. 2013.
30. Silhavy T.J., Kahne D., Walker S., 2010. The bacterial cell envelope. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2(a000414), 1–16.
31. Tasdelen F.N., Tanriverdi C.Y., Coban A.Y., Ozatli D., Tanyel E., Durupinar B., Tulek N., 2009. Antimicrobial activity of plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper. Fitoterapia. 80(1), 48–50.
Volume 10, Issue 4
December 2020
Pages 353-363
  • Receive Date: 06 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 20 December 2020
  • Accept Date: 26 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 26 December 2020