Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 and Heavy Metal in Raw Materials and Infant Formula Produced in Pegah Dairy Plants, IRAN

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Nutrition and Organic Products Research Center, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran


This study was conducted to investigate the presence of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and aflatoxin M1 in raw materials and all types of infant formula produced in Pegah Dairy Plants (PDPs) in Shahrekord, Iran. To this aim, 80 samples of raw cow’s milk, whey protein, starch, vitamin and all type of infant formula were collected for 6 months during 2018-2019. Cd and Pb were measured by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) samples and analyzed by ELISA technique. The incidence of contamination of AFM1 in vitamins, raw cow’s milk, whey powder, and baby formula collected from Pegah dairy plants were ND, 34, 23 and 8 ppb, respectively. The result indicated that none of aflatoxin M1 in infant formula samples exceeded FDA lead consumption guidelines. In addition, maximum mean lead in maltodextrin, starch, vitamin, raw cow’s milk, whey powder, baby oil, infant formula, immediate, whole and skim was 20, 23, ND, 49, 20, 21, 17, 17, 12, and 17 ppb, respectively. Further, the maximum cadmium content was found to be 5.5, 9.5, ND, 14, ND, 6.3, 12.30, 7.6, 9.2 and 5.4 ppb, respectively, where the value of the samples was not above the maximum recommended limits by standard of Iran, European Community (EC) and Codex Alimentarius (CAC). The average of the heavy metal (Cd and Pb) and AFM1 in the maltodextrin, starch, vitamin, raw milk, whey powder and baby oil, and the types of infant formula produced by Pegah dairy Plants (PDPs) Shahrekord was below the recommended levels by Iran standard.


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Volume 11, Issue 1
March 2021
Pages 55-62
  • Receive Date: 19 August 2020
  • Revise Date: 27 October 2020
  • Accept Date: 21 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 22 December 2020