Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals Risk of Consuming Fish Species from Oguta Lake, Imo State, Nigeria

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Group Research in Analytical Chemistry, Environment and Climate Change (GRACE & CC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Imo State University Owerri, P. M. B 2000, Imo State, Nigeria

2 Department of Geology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, P. M. B. 1526, Nigeria

3 Department of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, P. M. B. 1526, Nigeria

4 Department of Crop Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, P. M. B 2000, Nigeria

5 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Imo State University Owerri, P. M. B 2000, Imo State, Nigeria

6 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science Imo State University Owerri, Imo State, P. M. B 2000, Nigeria

10.22034/jchr.2020.584959.1017

Abstract

Oguta lake has experienced lots of oil spills and heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons could constitute fish contaminants. In order to assess the potential danger associated with consumption of fish from the lake by children and adults the current research was conducted. 6 g of each fish species from the lake were homogenized and divided into two portions. One was digested with aqua-regia while the other was extracted with hexane using a soxhlet extractor. Extracts were analyzed for heavy metal and hydrocarbons concentrations with AAnalyst Perkin Elmer 400 AAS and Buck 530 GC respectively. Data was interpreted with pollution and risk assessment models. Results revealed that except for Hg and Ni all other metals were below permissible levels by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Estimated dietary intakes (EDI mg/kg day-1) were high in children (110.157) for C. spectaculurus to (25.212) for H. fossilis while adult (18.885) C. spectaculurus to (7.951) for H. fossilis. EDI varied for children (Fe > Hg > Zn > Ag > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd) and (Fe > Zn > Hg > Ag > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd) for adults. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was highest for Cd in both adults and children. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (µg/l) was high in O. leucosticus (11113755.94) > H. fossilis (40210.66) > C. spectaculums (35184.44) > M. salmoides (6373.27). Fish species from Oguta lake could constitute a health risk with significant potential carcinogenic risk both in children and adults as estimated from fish consumption.

Keywords


1.Cosmas A. A., Godwin I.N., Chukwuma J.I., Emmanuel N.E., Samuel O.O., 2012. Water quality monitoring of a tropical lake and associated rivers: a case study of Oguta Lake and its tributaries, Niger Delta Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. J Environ. Sci. Eng., 1:818-826.
2. IUCN Niger – Delta Panel, 2013. Sustainable Remediation and Rehabilitation of Biodiversity and Habitats of Oil Spill Sites in the Niger Delta. Main Report including recommendations for the future. A report by the independent IUCN - Niger Delta Panel (IUCN-NDP) to the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria (SPDC). January 2013.Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. Pp 75.
3. Ahmad M.K., Islam S., Rahman S., Haque M.R., Islam M.M., 2010. Heavy metals in water, sediment and some fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Int J Environ Res. 4(2), 321-332.
4. Odoemelam S.A., 2005. Bioaccumulation of trace elements in fish from Oguta Lake in Nigeria. J Chem Soc Nigeria. 30(1), 18-20.
5. Walter F.A., Kingsly R.I., Allan W.Y., 2005. Heavy metal concentrations and burden in the bivalves (Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Grassostrea tulipa and Perna perna) from lagoons in Ghana: Model to describe mechanism of accumulation/excretion. Afr J Biotechnology. 2(9), 280-287.
6. Hauser R., Hauser M., 2009. Articles on natural medicine, ‘The dangers of heavy metals. Retrieved on 20-11-2017 from http://www.heart-disease-bypass-surgery.com/data/articles/141.htm.
7. Nwabueze A.A., Nwabueze E.O., Okonkwo C.N., 2011. Levels of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and some Heavy Metals in Tissues of Tympanotonus fuscatusperiwinkles from Warri river of Niger Delta
 
 
Area of Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manage. 15(1), 75-78.
8. Iwegbue C.M.A., Nwanjei G.E., Eguavoen I.O., 2004, ‘Distribution of Cadmium, Chromium, Iron, Lead and mercury in water, Fish and aquatic plants from Ewalu River, Nigeria, Advances in Natural and Applied Science Research. 2(1), 72-82.
9. FAO (1983). Compilation of Legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products, Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Fish Circ., 464:5-100.
10. Horsfall M. Jr., Spiff A.I., 2013. Principles of environmental pollution, toxicology and waste management. Onyoma research publications, Port Harcourt. pp. 13.
11. Veerasingam S., Venkatachalapathy R., Raja P., Sudhakar S., Rajeswari V., MohamadAsanulla R., Mohan R., Sutharsan P., 2011. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 18, 687- 693.
12. Shriadah M.M.A., 2001. Petroleum hydrocarbons concentrations in Arabian Gulf Fish tissues. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 67, 560-567.
13. Tolosa I., de Mora S.J., Fowler S.W., Villeneuve J.P., Bartocci J., Cattini C.,2005. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and the Gulf of Oman'.  Mar Pollut Bull. 50,1619-1633.
14. Alinnor I.J., Obiji I.A., 2010. Assessment of Trace Metal Composition in Fish Samples from Nworie River. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9(1), 81-85.
15. Verla E.N., Horsfall M. Jnr., Verla A.W., Spiff A.I., 2015. Assessment of some heavy metals in children’s playground in owerri metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria. J Chem Soc Nigeria. 40(1), 44-50.
16. USEPA, 2011. Risk-based concentration table.United State Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
17. Islam S. Md, Md Kawser A., Al-Mamun Md H., 2014. Determination of Heavy Metals in Fish and Vegetables in Bangladesh and Health Implications, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal. 1-35.
22. Asegbeloyin J.N., Onyinonyi A.E., Ujam O.T., Ukwueze N.N.,  Ukoha P.O., 2010. Assessment of Toxic Trace Metals in Selected Fish Species and Parts of Domestic Animals. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 9(3), 213-215.
23. Laganà P., Avventuroso E., Romano G., Gioffré Maria E., Patanè P., Parisi S., Moscato U., Delia S., 2017. The Codex Alimentarius and the European Legislation on Food Additives, Chemistry and Hygiene of Food Additives. Chemistry of Foods. 1-11.
24. Codex Alimentarius (1995) General standard for food additives CODEX STAN 192-1995, adopted in 1995, revision 2015. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, and World Health Organization, Geneva.
25. Institute of Medicine (IOM)., 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
26. ATSDR 2004. Toxicological profile for manganese Agency for toxic substances and disease Registry, US department of Health and human services, public health services, G. A.