Fabrication of Cassava Starch/Mentha piperita Essential Oil Biodegradable Film with Enhanced Antibacterial Properties

Document Type : Original Article


1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semnan, Iran

2 Kazan Federal University, 18 Kremlevskaya str., Kazan 420008, Russian Federation

3 Food Biopolymer Research Group, Food Science and Technology Department, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semanan, Iran

4 Food Biopolymer Research Group, Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology,University Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia


In this study, an edible film is prepared using Mentha piperita essential oil (MPEO) plasticized by sorbitol and glycerol in cassava starch matrix by the solution intercalation process. The effects of MPEO addition on the color, and antimicrobial activity (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), as well as the barrier properties of active films were investigated. MPEO was incorporated into cassava starch biodegradable films at different level (1- 3%, w/w). A low level of MPEO can obviously increased the water vapor permeability (WVP) of cassava starch/MPEO films. When the MPEO contents varied from 0-3% w/w, the lightness (L*value) decreased from 95.63 to 89.17 while the a* value increased from 0.15 to 0.82. The cassava film showed antimicrobial properties against S. aureus and E.coli by using agar diffusion method. These findings showed that Mentha piperita essential oil has a good potential to be added to cassava to make antimicrobial coating or film for food and non-food packaging.


1. Reddy C.S.K., Ghai R., Rashmi, Kalia V.C., 2003. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: an overview. Bioresource Technology. 87(2), 137-146.
2. Zhao R., Torley P., Halley P.J., 2008. Emerging biodegradable materials: starch- and protein-based bio-nanocomposites. Journal of Materials Science. 43(9), 3058-3071.
3. Cagri A., Ustunol Z., Ryser E.T., 2004. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings. Journal of Food Protection. 67(4), 833-848.
4. Jiménez A., Fabra M.J., Talens P., Chiralt A., 2012. Edible and Biodegradable Starch Films: A Review. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 5(6), 2058-2076.
5. Nouri L., Mohammadi Nafchi A., Karim A., 2014. Phytochemical, antioxidant, antibacterial, and α-amylase inhibitory properties of different extracts from betel leaves. Industrial Crops and Products. 62, 47-52.
6. Arvanitoyannis I.S., 1999. Totally and Partially Biodegradable Polymer Blends Based on Natural and Synthetic Macromolecules: Preparation, Physical Properties, and Potential as Food Packaging Materials. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C. 39(2), 205-271.
7. Khezerlou A., Azizi-Lalabadi M., Mousavi M.M., Ehsani A., 2019. Incorporation of essential oils with antibiotic properties in edible packaging films. Journal of Food and Bioprocess Engineering. 2 (1), 77-84.
8. Mohammadi Nafchi A., Moradpour M., Saeidi M., Alias A.K., 2013. Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch‐Stärke. 65(1‐2), 61-72.
9. Jafarzadeh S., Jafari S.M., Salehabadi A., Nafchi A.M., Uthaya Kumar U.S., Khalil H.P.S.A., 2020. Biodegradable green packaging with antimicrobial functions based on the bioactive compounds from tropical plants and their by-products. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 100, 262-277.
10. Jafarzadeh S., Ariffin F., Mahmud S., Alias A.K., Najafi A., Ahmad M., 2017. Chracterization of  semolina biopolymer films enriched with zinc oxide nano rods. Italian Journal of Food Science. 29(2), 195-208.      
11. Jafarzadeh S., Rhim J.W., Alias A.K., Ariffin F., Mahmud S., 2019. Application of antimicrobial active packaging film made of semolina flour, nano zinc oxide and nano-kaolin to maintain the quality of low-moisture mozzarella cheese during low-temperature storage. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 99(6), 2716-2725.
12. Marvizadeh M.M., Oladzadabbasabadi N., Mohammadi Nafchi A., Jokar M., 2017. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 99, 1-7.
13. Mohammad M., Marvizadeh, Abdorreza M.N., Maryam J., 2016. Obtaining and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide.  Congress on Food Structure & Design. 26-28October.
14. Kouravand F., Jooyandeh H., Barzegar H., Hojjati M., 2018. Characterization of cross-linked whey protein isolate-based films containing Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 42(3), e13557.
15. Singh R., Shushni M.A.M., Belkheir A., 2015. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Mentha piperita L. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 8(3), 322-328.
16. Karuza L., Blažević N., Šoljić Z., 1996. Isolation and structure of flavonoids from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) leaves. Acta Pharmaceutica. 46(4), 315-320.
17. Soković M., Vukojević J., Marin P., Brkić D., Vajs V., Van Griensven L., 2009. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities. Molecules. 14(1), 238.
18. Marvizadeh M., Mohammadi Nafchi A., Jokar M., 2014. Preparation and Characterization of Novel Bionanocomposite Based on Tapioca Starch/Gelatin/Nanorod-rich ZnO: Towards Finding Antimicrobial Coating for Nuts. Journal of Nuts. 5(2), 39-47.
19. Moosavian V., Marvizadeh M. M., Mohammadi Nafchi A., 2017. Biodegradable Films Based on Cassava Starch/Mentha piperita Essence: Fabrication, Characterization and Properties. Journal of Chemical Health Risks. 7(3), 239-245.
20. Abdorreza M.N., Cheng L.H., Karim A.A., 2011. Effects of plasticizers on thermal properties and heat sealability of sago starch films. Food Hydrocolloids. 25(1), 56-60.
21. Maizura M., Fazilah A., Norziah M., Karim A., 2007. Antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of partially hydrolyzed sago starch–alginate edible film containing lemongrass oil. Journal of Food Science. 72(6), C324-C330.
22. Nafchi A.M., Alias A.K., 2013. Mechanical, Barrier, Physicochemical, and Heat Seal Properties of Starch Films Filled with Nanoparticles. Journal of Nano Research. 25, 90-100.
23. Marvizadeh M.M., Mohammadi Nafchi A., Jokar M., 2014. Improved physicochemical properties of tapioca starch / bovine gelatin biodegradable films with zinc oxide nanorod. Journal of Chemical Health Risks. 4(4), 25-31  
24. Pranoto Y., Salokhe V.M., Rakshit S.K., 2005. Physical and antibacte rial properties of alginate-based edible film incorporated with garlic oil. Food Research International. 38(3), 267-272.
25. Ghasemlou M., Aliheidari N., Fahmi R., Shojaee-Aliabadi S., Keshavarz B., Cran M. J., Khaksar R., 2013. Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils. Carbohydrate Polymers. 98(1), 1117-1126.
26. Benavides S., Villalobos-Carvajal R., Reyes J.E., 2012. Physical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of alginate film: Effect of the crosslinking degree and oregano essential oil concentration. Journal of Food Engineering. 110(2), 232-239.
27. Shojaee-Aliabadi S., Hosseini H., Mohammadifar M.A., Mohammadi A., Ghasemlou M., Hosseini S.M., Khaksar R., 2014. Characterization of κ-carrageenan films incorporated plant essential oils with improved antimicrobial activity. Carbohydrate Polymers. 101, 582-591.
28. Kuorwel K.K., Cran M.J., Sonneveld K., Miltz J., Bigger S.W., 2011. Antimicrobial Activity of Natural Agents Coated on Starch-Based Films against Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Food Science. 76(8), M531-M537.
29. Mahboubi M., Haghi G., 2008. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. essential oil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 119 (2), 325-327.
30. Hosseini M., Razavi S., Mousavi M., 2009. Antimicrobial, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan‐based films incorporated with thyme, clove and cinnamon essential oils. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 33(6), 727-743.
31. Dashipour A., Razavilar V., Hosseini H., Shojaee-Aliabadi S., German J.B., Ghanati K., Khakpour M., Khaksar R., 2015. Antioxidant and antimicrobial carboxymethyl cellulose films containing Zataria multiflora essential oil. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 72, 606-613.
Volume 11, Issue 1
March 2021
Pages 23-29
  • Receive Date: 22 May 2020
  • Revise Date: 02 August 2020
  • Accept Date: 22 August 2020
  • First Publish Date: 01 March 2021