Residual Concentration of Lead, Iron and Calcium in Chicken Meat Paste: Indicative Parameters for Identifying Deboning Procedure and Health Risk Assessment

Document Type: Original Article


1 Food safety & Hygiene Division, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 International Branch, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of food Science and technology, Islamic Azad University, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Amol, Iran



Deboning method has a major effect on quality and safety of poultry carcasses or animal bones.The aim of this study was to determine residual concentration of lead, iron and calcium in chicken meat paste as indicative parameters for identifying deboning procedure. The test samples were eight whole chicken carcasses collected randomly in a three-month period from main retail markets in Tehran. All of the collected samples divided into the two groups: deboning of one group well done by hand and the other was performed mechanically by machine. Sample preparation and analyses were performed by wet digestion and atomic absorption analysis, respectively. According to the results the mean concentration of lead, iron and calcium in manually deboned samples were 2.94 (±0.56), 4.21 (±0.31) and 65.77 (±2.11) mg Kg-1 and in mechanically deboned samples were 3.79 (±0.52), 23.05 (±3.47) and 275.83 (±16.31) mg Kg-1, respectively. In all cases, concentration of investigated elements in mechanically deboned treatments were significantly higher than manual ones (p < 0.05) and obviously indicated the difference in deboning procedures. More ever the results of calculating estimated daily intake for lead due to consumption of chicken meat paste showed that in both of deboning methods, the concentration of lead was more than that recommended by provisional tolerable daily intake.


1. Brewer V., Kuttappan V., Emmert J., Meullenet J.F., Owens C., 2012. Big-bird programs: Effect of strain, sex, and debone time on meat quality of broilers. Poultry Science. 91, 248-254.

2. Ionescu A., Aprodu I., Zara M.L., Gurau G., 2003. Researches concerning biochemical stability of mechanical deboned poultry meat during freezing. The Annals of University “Dunarea de Jos” of Galati, Fascicle VI Food Technology Pag. 38-44.

3. Schnell G., Nath K., Darfler J., Vadehra D., Baker R., 1973. Physical and functional properties of mechanically deboned poultry meat as used in the manufacture of frankfurters. Poultry Science. 52, 1363-1369.

4. Püssa T., Raudsepp P., Toomik P., Pällin R., Mäeorg U., Kuusik S., Soidla R., Rei M., 2009. A study of oxidation products of free polyunsaturated fatty acids in mechanically deboned meat. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 22, 307-314.

5. Trindade M.A., Felício P.E.D., Castillo C.J.C., 2004. Mechanically separated meat of broiler breeder and white layer spent hens. Scientia Agricola. 61, 234-239.

6. Voloski F., Tonello L., Ramires T., Reta G., Dewes C., Iglesias M., Mondadori R.G., Gandra E.A., Da Silva W.P., Duval E.H., 2016. Influence of cutting and deboning operations on the microbiological quality and shelf life of buffalo meat. Meat science. 116, 207-212.

7. Kuttappan V., Brewer V., Mauromoustakos A., McKee S., Emmert J., Meullenet J., Em-met J., 2013. Estimation of factors associated with the occurrence of white striping in broiler breast fillets. Poultry science. 92, 811-819.

8. Daros F.G., Masson M.L., Amico S.C., 2005. The influence of the addition of mechanically deboned poultrymeat on the rheological properties of sausage. Journal of Food Engineering. 68, 185-189.

9. Lombardi-Boccia G., Lanzi S., Aguzzi A., 2005. Aspects of meat quality: trace elements and B vitamins in raw and cooked meats. Journal of food Composition and Analysis. 18, 39-46.

10. Lombardi-Boccia G., Martinez-Dominguez B., Aguzzi A., 2002. Total heme and non-heme iron in raw and cooked meats. Journal of Food Science-Chicago. 67, 1738-1741.

11. Carpenter C.E., Mahoney A.W., 1992. Contributions of heme and nonheme iron tohuman nutrition. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition. 31, 333-367.

12. Vos G., Lammers H., Kan C., 1990. Cadmium and lead in muscle tissue and organs of broilers, turkeys and spent hens and in mechanically deboned poultry meat. Food Additives & Contaminants. 7, 83-91.

13. Vos G., Hovens J., Delft W., 1987. Arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in meat, livers and kidneys ofcattle slaughtered in the Netherlands during 1980–1985. Food Additives & Contaminants. 4, 73-88.

14. Rahimi E., Hajisalehi M., Kazemeini H.R., Chakeri A., Khodabakhsh A., Derakhshesh M., Mirdamadi M., Ebadi A.G., Rezvani A., Kashkahi F.M., 2010. Analysis and determination of mercury, cadmium and lead in canned tuna fish marketed in Iran. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9, 4938-4941.

15. Missohou A., Mbodj M., Zanga D., Niang S., Sylla K.S.B., Seydi M.G., Cisse O., Seck W.S., 2011. Analysis of microbiological and chemical quality of poultry meat in the vicinity of the Mbeubeuss landfill in Malika (Senegal). Tropical Animal Health and Production. 1-13.

16. Ismail S.A., Abolghait S.K., 2013. Estimation of Lead and Cadmium residual levels in chicken giblets at retail markets in Ismailia city, Egypt. International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine. 1, 109-112.

17. Iwegbue C., Nwajei G., Iyoha E., 2008. Heavy metal residues of chicken meat and gizzard and turkey meat consumed in southern Nigeria. Bulgarian. Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 11, 275-280.

18. EI-Salam N., Ahmad S., Basir A., Rais A.K., Bibi A., Ullah R, Ali Shad A., Muhammad Z., Hussain I., 2013. Distribution of heavy metals in the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and meat of cow, buffalo, goat, sheep and chicken from kohat market Pakistan. Life Sci J. 10, 937-940.

19. Bakalli R.,Pesti G., Ragland W., 1995. The magnitude of lead toxicity in broiler chickens. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 37, 9-15.

20. Serdaroğlu M., Yildiz G.T., Bağdatlioğlu N., 2005. Effects of deboning methods on chemical composition and some properties of beef and turkey meat. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. 29, 797-802.

21. Akbari-adergani B., Rahnama S., Shirkhan F., 2017. Lead and cadmium contaminations in soil and irrigation water and their accumulation in pith, flesh and skin of Kiwifruit in Astara, north of Iran. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 27, 162-172 [Persian].

22. Akbari-adergani B., Gharanfoli F., Hassanzade M., Khashyarmanesh Z., Rezaee R., Karimi G., 2012. Determination of heavy metals in different honey brands from Iranian markets, Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 1-7.

23. Divanian Sh., Akbari-adergani B., Ziarati P., 2016. Study on Chemical Contamination Problem in Macaroni and Pasta ProductionTechnology. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences. 4, 227-235.

24. Akbari-adergani B., Ezeddin M., Hashemi Mogaddam H., Shoeibi Sh., 2015. Effect of production process on concentration of lead and arsenic in sunflower oil, J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 25, 38-48 [In Persian].

25. Akbari-adergani B., Eskandari S., Kelarestani Nejad H., 2014. Bioaccumulation of some metallic elements in edible Textrue of shrimp penaeussemisulcatus collected from Persian Gulf. Iranian South Medical Journal. 17, 345-357 [In Persian].

26. Sadeghzadeh F.S., Akbari-adergani B., 2014. Bioaccumulation and exposure assessment of lead and cadmium due to consumption of penaeus semisulcatus, A post-market surveillance in Tehran 2012. J Health Sys Res. 10, 628-639 [Persian].

27. Sipahi H., Eken A., Aydın A., Şahin G., Baydar T., 2014. Safety assessment of essential and toxic metals in infant formulas. Turk J Pediatr. 56, 385-391.

28. Tabande L., Taheri M., 2016. Evaluation of Exposure to Heavy Metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Vegetables Grown in the Olericultures of Zanjan Province's Fields. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 9, 41-56.

29. Ozkececi R., Karakaya M., Yilmaz M., Saricoban C., Ockerman H., 2008. The effect of carcass part and packaging method on the storage stability of mechanically deboned chicken meat. Journal of Muscle Foods. 19, 288-301.

30. Table E., Table V., 2001. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Micronutrients, Washington (DC): National Academies Press. ISBN-10: 0-309-07279-4.

31. Demos B., Mandigo, R., 1996. Color of fresh, frozen and cooked ground beef patties manufactured with mechanicallyrecovered neck bone lean. Meat Science. 42, 415-429.

32. Demos B., Mandigo R. 1995. Composition and chemistry of mechanically recovered beef neck‐bone lean. Journal of Food Science. 60, 576-579.

33. Al-Najdawi R., Abdullah B., 2002. Proximate composition, selected minerals, cholesterol content and lipid oxidation of mechanically and hand-deboned chickens from the Jordanian market. Meat Science. 61, 243-247.

34. Ang C., Hamm D., 1982. Proximate Analyses, Selected vitamins and minerals and cholesterols content of mechanically deboned and hand-deboned boiler parts. Journal of Food Sciences. 47, 885-888.

35. Field R., 1988. Mechanically separated meat, poultry and fish. Advances in meat research (USA).

36. Akramzadeh N., Ramezani Z., Ferdousi R., Akbari-adergani B., Mohammadi A., Karimian-khosrowshahi N., Khalili B., Pilevar Z., Hosseini H., 2020. Effect of chicken raw materials on physicochemical and microbiological properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat, Veterinary Research Forum, In-press.

37. González-Weller D., Karlsson L., Caballero A., Hernández F., Gutiérrez A., González-Iglesias T., Marino M., Hardisson A., 2006. Lead and cadmium in meat and meat products consumed by the population in Tenerife Island, Spain. Food additives and Contaminants. 23, 757-763.

38. Tahvonen R., Kumpulainen J., 1994. Lead and cadmium contents in pork, beef and chicken, and in pig and cow liver in Finland during 1991. Food Additives & Contaminants. 11, 415-426.

39. Field R.A., 2000. Ash and calcium as measures of bone in meat and bone mixtures. Meat Science. 55, 255-264.

40. Larsen E.H., Andersen N.L., Møller A., Petersen A., Mortensen G.K., Petersen J., 2002. Monitoring the content and intake of trace elements from food in Denmark. Food Additives & Contaminants. 19, 33-46.