Evaluating the Artificial and Microbial Contamination (Pathogenic Bacteria, Molds, Yeasts) of Confectionery Products in Iran: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master’s Student, Department of Health and Food Safety, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Irann

2 Professor, Medical Microbiology Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

3 Master’s Student, Department of Health and Food Safety, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

4 Department of Health and Food Safety, Faculty of Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran


The prevalence of contaminated foodborne diseases has always been a major challenge all around the world. A huge amount of money is spent on treating these diseases every year. This study investigated the status of chemical and microbial contamination of confectionery products in Iran. Data were collected from electronic databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Elsevier, SID, Magiran, and Google Scholar during 2001 - 2017. Search keywords included microbial contamination, chemical contamination, confectionery products, cream-filled pastry, and Iran. The results indicated that the highest contamination rates in South Khorasan, Tehran, Gorgan, and Isfahan were related to Staphylococcus aureus (80%), Escherichia coli(57%), Enterobacteriaceae (25.1%), and yeasts (100%), respectively. Moreover, the least prevalent pathogens in west of Tehran, Tabriz, east of Gilan, and south of Tehran were S. aureus (4.81%), Coliform (2.51%), Bacillus cereus (1.2%), and E. coli (2%), respectively. In addition, there was no Salmonella in southeast of Tehran and Yasouj. Most confectionery products contained unauthorized artificial dyes, and authorized artificial dyes were also overused. The most commonly used artificial dye was sunset yellow with 80% use in Arak. Moreover, 100% of the samples in Arak contained unauthorized artificial dyes. Confectionery products are an important part of food products in the country. The likelihood of microbial and chemical spoilage of these products increases due to the use of such ingredients as eggs, milk, and color additives. Further training and supervision on the preparation and maintenance of these products by the local health authorities can be effective in reducing the contamination.


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Volume 12, Issue 2
June 2022
Pages 151-164
  • Receive Date: 10 November 2019
  • Revise Date: 26 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 20 March 2020
  • First Publish Date: 01 June 2022