Analysis of Hydroxyl Methyl Furfuran by Graphene Oxide-reinforced Hollow Fiber Electromembrane Extraction in Food Samples

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA), Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOH), Tehran, Iran


Cooking, sterilization and roasting are used in the food industry for different purposes, such as taste improvement, flavor addition, and shelf-life extension. The roasting stage plays an important role in the improvement of color and sensory properties of coffee; although as a result of this process the level of Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is increased. The purpose of the this investigation was to analysis the level of HMF in instant coffee and infant formula samples through Electromembrane extraction (EME) techniques coupled with HPLC. To achieve the highest extraction efficiency, some critical extraction parameters were optimized, including the concentration of geraphen oxide (GO), the pH of the sample solution, the solution existing inside the lumen of hollow fiber, the extraction technique, and desorption time. A full validation was conducted for the method in terms of linearity, precision, and trueness. The method showed good linear ranges (0.1-100μg kg-1) with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999-0.998 μg kg-1 for instant coffee and infant formula. The limit of quantification (LOD) value of the present method for instant coffee and infant formula was 0.1μg kg-1. The method provided high recoveries ranging from 85.0% to 108.0% for instant coffee and infant formula. The results indicated that the method was rapid, efficient and environment-friendly in the determination of HMF in instant coffee and infant formula samples.


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Volume 10, Issue 2
May 2020
Pages 155-163
  • Receive Date: 09 June 2019
  • Revise Date: 01 September 2019
  • Accept Date: 24 September 2019
  • First Publish Date: 02 May 2020