Identification of the Mechanism Involved in the Removal Potetial of Textile Pollutants by the Aquatic Plant Lemna gibba L.

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Badji Mokhtar University, 23000 Annaba, Algeria

2 Unilasalle-Ecole des Métiers de l’Environnement, Campus de Ker Lann, 35170 Bruz, France

3 Université de Rennes 1, ENSCR, CNRS, UMR 6226, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes, France


Some studies asserted that some aquatic plants can remove organic pollutants by degrading them into their biomass. In this work, it was aimed to examine the ability of L. gibba L. to remove two dyes, DR-89 and VB-20 and then to elucidate the mechanism of removal. For this purpose, experiments were conducted at 21±1 °C, 12h photoperiod and pH of 6.1± 0.01.  For the maximal dye concentration tolerated by the plants (50 mg L-1), the results demonstrated that maximum dye abatement was determined to be about 53% (VB-20) and 23% (DR-89). In order to identify the mechanism of dye absorption, FT-IR, UV-vis and SEM analyses were conducted on the biomass and liquid phases. The results indicated that alcohol, alkene, phenol, and amine functions are involved in dye binding to the biomass surface without demonstrating any phytodegradation phenomenon. Additionally, the SEM analysis confirmed this result showing that the ventral lobe and the thin root of each frond (unlike the dorsal lobe) are colored via a direct interaction with the dye molecules allowing their absorption from the surrounding water. Thus, the invasive plant, L. gibba L. could remove organic dyes from contaminated mediums by accumulating them in the biomass without degrading them.


1. Sivakumar D., Swaminathan G., 2008. Physico-chemical characteristic of ground water in and around industry. Ind J Environ Protec. 28(1), 49-59.
2. Hessel C., Allegre C., Maisseu M., Charbit F., Moulin P., 2007. Guidelines and legislation for dye house effluents. J Environ Manag. 83(2), 171-180.
3. Teng T.T., Low L.W., 2012. Removal of dyes and pigments from industrial effluents. Advan Water Treat Pollut Prevent. 65-93.
4. Yagub M.T., Sen T.K., Afroze S., Ang H.M., 2014. Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: A review. Advan Colloid Interface Sci. 209, 172-184.  
5. Akhtar M.F., Ashraf A., Javeed A., Anjum A.A., Sharif A., Saleem M., Mustafa G., Ashraf M., Saleem A., Akhtar B., 2018. Association of textile industry effluent with mutagenicity and its toxic health implications upon acute and sub-chronic exposure. Environ Monit Assess. 190, 179-192.
6. Yaseen D.A., Scholz M., 2018. Treatment of synthetic textile wastewater containing dye mixtures with microcosms. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 25, 1980-1997.
7. Kayan B., Gozmen B., Demirel M., Gizir A.M., 2010. Degradation of acid red 97 dye in aqueous medium using wet oxidation and electro-Fenton techniques. J Hazard Mater. 177(1-3), 95-102. 
8. Jasrotia S., Kansal A.,  Mehra A., 2017. Performance of aquatic plant species for phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated water. Appl Water Sci. 7(2), 889-896.
9. Al-Baldawi I.A., Abdullah S.R.S., Anuar N., Suja F., Mushrifah I., 2015. Phytodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in diesel-contaminated water using Scirpus grossus. Ecolog Eng. 74, 463-473.
10. De Filipis L.F., 2015. Role of Phytoremediation in Radioactive Waste Treatment. Soil Remed. Plant. Prospec Challeng. 207-25.
11. Prabakaran K., Li J., Anandkumar A.,  Leng Z., Zou C.B., Du D., 2019. Managing environmental contamination through phytoremediation by invasive plants: A review. Ecol Eng. 138, 28-37.
12. Barbosa Neto A.G., Morais M.B., Dutra E.D., Calsa Junior T., 2019. Biological diversity of Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. isolates influences biomass production and wastewater phytoremediation. Bioresour Technol. 6, 251-259.
13. Khellaf N., Zerdaoui M., 2010. Growth, photosynthesis and respiratory response to copper in Lemna minor: A potential use of duckweed in biomonitoring. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng. 7(2), 299-306.
14. Hegazy A.K., Emam M.H., Lovett-Doust L., Azab E., El-Khatib A.A., 2017. Response of duckweed to lead exposure: phytomining, bioindicators and bioremediation. Desalin Water Treat. 70, 227-234.
15. Chaudhary E., Sharma P., 2019. Chromium and cadmium removal from wastewater using duckweed - Lemna gibba L. and ultrastructural deformation due to metal toxicity. Inter J Phytoremed. 21(3), 279-286.
16. Ekperusi A.O., Sikoki F.D., Nwachukwu O.E., 2019. Application of common duckweed (Lemna minor) in phytoremediation of chemicals in the environment: State and future perspective. Chemosphere. 223, 285-309.
17. Singh V., Pandey B., Suthar S., 2019. Phytotoxicity and degradation of antibiotic ofloxacin in duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza) system. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 179, 88-95.
18. Amare E., Kebede F., Berihu T., Mulat W., 2018. Field based investigation on phytoremediation potentials of Lemna minor and Azolla filiculoides in tropical, semi arid regions: case of Ethiopia. Inter J Phytoremed. 20(10), 965-972.
19. Khellaf N., Zerdaoui M., 2013. Phytoaccumulation of zinc by the duckweed, L. gibba L.: Effect of temperature, pH and metal source. Desalin Water Treat. 51, 5755-5760.
20. Megateli S., Semsari S., Couderchet M., 2009. Toxicity and removal of heavy metals (cadmium, copper and zinc) by Lemna gibba. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 72, 1774-1780.
21. Khellaf N., Djelal H., Amrane A., Cabrol A., 2018. Biostimulation to improve the dye biodegradation of organic dyes by activated sludge. J Chem Health Risks. 7(4), 247-259.
22. Khataee A.R., Movafeghi A., Vafaei F., Salehi Lisar S.Y, Zarei M., 2013. Potential of the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides in biodegradation of an azo dye: modeling of experimental results by artificial neural network. Inter J Phytoremed. 15(8), 729-742.
23. Vafaei F., Khataee A.R., Movafeghi A., Lisar S.Y.S, Zarei M., 2012. Bioremoval of an azo dye by Azolla filiculoides: Study of growth, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzymes status. Inter Biodeterior Biodegrad. 75, 194-200.
24. Yaseen D.A., Scholz M., 2017. Comparison of experimental ponds for the treatment of dye wastewater under controlled and semi-natural conditions. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 24, 16031-16040.
25. Tôrôk A., Buta E., Indolean C., Tonk S., Silaghi-Dumitrescu L., Majdik C., 2015. Biological removal of triphenylmethane dyes from aqueous solution by Lemna minor L. Acta Chem Slov. 62, 452-461.
27. Khataee A.R., Dehghan G., Ebadi A., Zarei M., Pourhassan M., 2010. Biological treatment of a dye solution by Macroalgae Chara sp.: Effect of operational parameters, intermediates identification and artificial neural network modeling. Bioresour Technol. 101, 2252-2258.
28. Khataee A.R., Movafeghi A., Torbati S., Salehi Lisar S.Y., Zarei M., 2012. Phytoremediation potential of duckweed Lemna minor L. in degradation of CI Acid Blue 92 Artificial neural network modeling. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 80, 291-298.
29. Tahir U., Sohail S., Khan U.H., 2017. Concurrent uptake and metabolism of dyestuffs through bio-assisted phytoremediation: a symbiotic approach. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 24(29), 22914-22931.
30. Fauzul Imron M., Kurniawan S.B.,  Soegianto A., Wahyudianto F.E., 2019. Phytoremediation of methylene blue using duckweed (Lemna minor). Heliyon. 5(8), e02206.
31. Chojnacka K., 2007. Bioaccumulation of Cr (III) ions by blue-green alga Spirulina sp. Part I. A comparison with biosorption. Americ J Agricult Biol Sci. 2(4), 218.
32. Reema R.M., Saravanan P., Dharmendra Kumar M., Renganathan S., 2011. Accumulation of methylene blue dye by growing Lemna minor L. Separ Sci Technol. 46(6), 1052-1058.
33. Nilratnisakorn S., Thiravetyan P., Nakbanpote W., 2007. Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.): effects of dye, salinity and metals. Sci Total Environ. 384, 67-76.
34. Hillman W.S., 1961. The Lemnaceae or Duckweeds: A review of the descriptive and experimental literature. Bot Rev. 27, 221-287.
Volume 10, Issue 2
May 2020
Pages 145-153
  • Receive Date: 07 January 2020
  • Revise Date: 28 February 2020
  • Accept Date: 30 March 2020
  • First Publish Date: 02 May 2020