Role of Cytochrome C and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Memory Deficit Induced by High Doses of a Commercial Solid Air Freshener in Mice

Document Type : Original Article


1 Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2 Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,PAMO University of Medical Sciences, Port Harcourt, River States, Nigeria


ABSTRACT: The study evaluated the role of cytochrome C and pro-inflammatory cytokines in memory deficit produced by a commercial solid air freshener (SAF) in male Swiss mice. The animals were culled into 6 groups (n = 7): group 2-6 were exposed to SAF (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for 28 consecutive days through whole body exposure. Mice in group 1(control) were exposed to fresh air. Memory function was evaluated on day 28 using standard models. Mice brains were then processed for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, cytochrome C expression and histomorphologic changes. The chemical constituents of SAF were also determined using GC-MS.SAF (100 and 200 mg/kg) produced memory decline and increased brain contents of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p <0.05) but not interleukin-6 (p > 0.05) relative to control. Increased cytochrome C immunopositive cells, reduced neuronal cells and cytoarchitectural changeswere observed in the hippocampus of mice exposed to SAF (200 g). MS GC-profiling showed the presence of 7 major volatile organic constituents in SAF. Increased release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cytochrome C expression might play a role in SAF-induced memory deficit in mice.


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Volume 9, Issue 4
December 2019
Pages 263-274
  • Receive Date: 10 July 2019
  • Revise Date: 02 December 2019
  • Accept Date: 13 October 2019
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2019