Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Colorant Extracted from Red Onion Skin

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 MSc Student of Food safety and Hygiene, Faculty of public Health, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

2 Health products safety research Center, Qazvin University of Medical sciences, Qazvin, Iran

3 Professor, Medical Microbiology Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

4 Instructor of Biostatistics, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

5 Msc of Food Industrial Engineering, Food Quality Control Laboratory, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

6 Msc of Organic Chemistry, Food Quality Control Laboratory, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract

Due to the abundance and cheapness of red onion skin scrubs and its high consumption in Iran, we decided to evaluate its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as a natural source of anthocyanin. The onion skin was collected from the Qazvin local market. Extraction was carried out using water and glycerol. The total anthocyanin concentration was determined by pH-differential method. MICand MBC were determined using microdilution method and diameter of the bacteria inhibition zone by disc diffusion method on extracted color from Onion skin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and total phenol content by the Folin Ciocalteu.  The mean total anthocyanin concentration at 40°C was (60.67, 8.4) mg/g. The highest and the lowest mean diameter of the non-growth zones of the extracted colorant in Staphylococcus aureus was 0/83±0/14 and 0/4±0/17 and in the E. coli 0/9±0/22 and 0/5±0/20 respectively. Inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) in the extracted colorant was obtained at 14/718±0/20 mg / ml. The total phenolic content was obtained as an average of 114.326±2/36 mg/g of gallic acid per gram of onion powder. According to the results of the study and the high consumption of onions in various types of household foods and as a result of increasing their waste, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, in addition to coloring, can be used as a cheap dye source in various food industries.

Keywords


1. Aberoumand A., 2011. A review article on edible pigments properties and sources as natural biocolorants in foodstuff and food industry. WJDFS. 6 (1), 71-78.

2. Bahreini Z, 2016. Preparation and Formulation of Natural Edible Color Grain Betaline from Red Beet and Red Cactus Fruit.NFT. 4 (2), 115-129.

3. Trasande L., Shaffer R.M., Sathyanarayana S., Health C.O.E., 2018. Food additives and child health. Pediatrics. 142(2).

4. Tucker I., 2017. Autism, Nutrition, ADHD. Autism.

5. Om-Hashem A., Hanan M., Nessrien M., Effat A., 2016. Effect of different extraction methods on stablity of anthocyanins extracted from red onion peels (Allium cepa) and its uses as food colorants. Bulletin of the NNIARE. 47, 196-219.

 6. Yousuf B., Gul K., Wani A.A., Singh P., 2016. Health benefits of anthocyanins and their encapsulation for potential use in food systems: a review. CRIFSN. 56(13), 2223-2230.

7. Wallace T.C., Giusti M.M., 2015. Anthocyanins. AIN. 6(5), 620-622.

8. Mekonnen D.A., Mihretu F.G., Woldetsadik K., 2017. Farmyard manure and intra-row spacing on yield and yield components of Adama Red onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivar

under irrigation in Gewane District, Afar Region, Ethiopia. JHF. 9(5), 40-48.

9. Domańska U., Wiśniewska A., Dąbrowski Z., Więckowski M., 2018. Ionic Liquids as Efficient Extractants for Quercetin from Red Onion (Allium cepa L.).JASChM. 7, 21-38.

10. Darabi A.S., 2018. Storability evaluation of short day onion populations and cultivars in non-controlled storage. IJHS. 49(1), 105-116.

11. Amerian M., 2017. Effect of Different Nitrogen Levels on Antimicrobial Effects and Some Physiological Characteristics of Onion (Allium cepa L.). EC(Agricultural Sciences). 12 (1), 107-122.

12. Ali O.H., Al-sayed H., Yasin N., Afifi E., 2016. Effect of different extraction methods on stablity of anthocyanins extracted from red onion peels (Allium cepa) and its uses as food colorants. Bulletin of the NNIARE. 47(2), 1-24.

13. Ansari M., Hojati M., 2018. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of anthocyanin pigments extracted from red onion peel and red cabbage. JFR. 28(1), 73-91.

14. Micek J., Valsikova M., Druzbikova H., Ryant P., Jurikova T., Sochor J., Borkovcová M., 2015. The antioxidant capacity and macroelement content of several onion cultivars. TJAF.39(6), 999-1004.

15. Mourtzinos I., Prodromidis P., Grigorakis S., Makris D.P., Biliaderis C.G., Moschakis T., 2018. Natural food colourants derived from onion wastes: application in a yoghurt product. Electrophoresis. 39(15), 1975-1983.

16. Vega Arroy J.D., Ruiz-Espinosa H., Luna-Guevara J.J., Luna-Guevara M.L., Hernández-Carranza P., Ávila-Sosa R., Ochoa-Velasco C.E., 2017. Effect of solvents and extraction methods on total anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Renealmia alpinia (Rottb.) Maas peel. CJFS. 35(5), 456-465.

17. Valizadeh S., Fakheri T., Mahmoudi R., Katiraee F., Gajarbeygi P.,  2014. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Antifungal Properties of Satureja hortensis Essential Oil. BHS. 1(3):e24733

18. Faden AA,  2018. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of areca catechu against some opportunistic oral bacteria. BBRA. 15(3), 655-659.

19. Moosavy M.H., Hassanzadeh P., Mohammadzadeh E., Mahmoudi R., Khatibi S.A., Mardani K., 2017. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of Lemon (Citrus limon) peel in vitro and in a food model. JFQHC. 4(2), 42-48.

20. Viera V.B., Piovesan N., Rodrigues J.B., Mello R. de O., Prestes R.C., Santos R.C.V dos., Vaucher R.de A.,

Hautrive, T.P., Kubota E.H., 2017. Extraction of phenolic compounds and evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of red onion skin (Allium cepa L.). IFRJ.24(3), 990-999.

21. Zhang S.l., Peng D., Xu Y.C., Lü S.W., Wang J.J., 2016. Quantification and analysis of anthocyanin and flavonoids compositions, and antioxidant activities in onions with three different colors. JIA. 15(9), 2175-2181.