Enhancing the Antimicrobial Properties Copper Oxide Shell with the Magnetic Mesoporous Core- Shell

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Guilan University, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht, Iran


In this work, Magnetic Fe3O4@MCM-41/CuO nanocomposite was preparation of iron oxide magnetite nanoparticles and development of MCM-41 mesoporous shells on the surface of iron oxide magnetite after Fe3O4@MCM-41 was organofunctionalized and finally formation CuO shells with thickness ~ 25-30 nm in the surface of Fe3O4@MCM-41-NH2 core-shell. The properties of prepared magnetic core-shell were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement and vibration sample magnetometer (VSM). The applicability of the synthesized core-shell was tested as an antimicrobial agent against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It was showed that the Fe3O4@MCM-41@CuO act as an ideal antimicrobial agent in compared with that of the pure copper oxide and Fe3O4@CuO.


1. Rajabi S.K., Sohrabnezhad Sh., Gaphourian S., 2016. Fabrication of Fe3O4@CuO core-shell from MOF based materials and its antibacterial activity. Solid State Chem. 244, 160-163.

2. Wang W.W., Zhu Y.J., Cheng G. F., Huang Y.H., 2006. Microwave-assisted synthesis of cupric oxide Nanosheet and Nano whiskers. Materials Letters. 60, 609- 612.

3. Wang, L., C. Hu, and L. Shao, 2017. The antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles: present situation and prospects for the future. Int J Nanomed, 12, 1227-1249.

4. Fernando SSN, Gunasekara TDCP, Holton J., 2018.  Antimicrobial Nanoparticles: applications and mechanisms of action. Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases, 8, 2-11.

5. Mao L.Q., Yamamoto K., Zhou W.L., Jin L.T., 2000. Electrochemical Nitric Oxide Sensors Based on Electropolymerized Film of M(salen) with Central Ions of Fe, Co, Cu, and Mn.  Electroanalysis, 12, 72–77.

6. Zhang Y.F., Qiu L.G., Yuan Y. P., Zhu Y.J., Jiang X., Xiao J.D., 2014. Magnetic Fe3O4@C/Cu and Fe3O4@CuO core–shell composites constructed from MOF-based materials and their photocatalytic properties under visible light. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 144, 863–869.

 7. Chen Z.F., Meyer T.J., 2013. Copper (II) catalysis of water oxidation. Angew Chem., 125, 728–731.

8.Akhavan O., Ghaderi E., 2010. Cu and CuO nanoparticles immobilized by silica thin films as antibacterial materials and photocatalysts. Surface and Coatings Technology. 205, 219-223.

9. Ding J., Liu L., Xue J., Zhou Z., He G., Chen H., 2016. Low-temperature preparation of magnetically separable Fe3O4@CuO-RGO core-shell heterojunctions for high-performance removal of organic dye under visible light. J Alloys and Compounds. 688, 649-659.

10. Youssef A., Barakat N.A.M., Amna T., Al-Deyab S.S., Hassan M.S., Abdel-hay A., Kim H.Y., 2012. Inactivation of pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae by CuO/TiO2 nanofibers: A multifunctional nanomaterial via one-step electro spinning. Ceramics International. 38, 4525-4532.

11. Das D., Chandra Nath B., Phukon P., KumarDolui S., 2013. Synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial behavior of CuO nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Bio interfaces. 101, 430-433.

12. Sohrabnezhad Sh., Rajabi S.K., 2018. The influence of MCM-41 mesoporous shell in photocatalytic activity of magnetic core-shell. J Photochem Photobiol A. 350, 86–93.

13. Li Z., Barnes J.C., Bosoy A., Stoddart J.F., Zink J.I., 2012. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles in biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev. 41, 2590−2605.

14. Vivero Escoto J.L., Slowing I.I., Wu C.W., Lin V.S.Y., 2009. Photo induced intracellular controlled release drug delivery in human cells by gold-capped mesoporous silica nanosphere. J Am Chem Soc. 131, 3462−3463.

15. Trewyn B.G., Slowing I.I., Giri S., Chen H.T., Lin V.S.Y., 2007. Synthesis and functionalization of a mesoporous silica nanoparticle based on the sol-gel process and applications in controlled release. Acc Chem Res. 40, 846−853.

16. Trewyn B.G., Whitman C.M., Lin V.S.Y., 2004. Morphological Control of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid Templated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Controlled Release of Antibacterial Agents. Nano Letter. 4, 2139−2143.

17. Sobczak I., Ziolek M., Renn M., Decyk P., Nowak I., Katuri M., Lavalley J.C., 2004. Cu state and behaviour in MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves modified with copper during the synthesis––comparison with copper exchanged materials. Micropor Mesopor Matter. 74, 23-36.

18. Hao X.Y., Zhang Y.Q., Wang J.W., Zhou W., Zhang C., Liu Sh., 2006. A novel approach to prepare MCM-41 supported CuO catalyst with high metal loading and dispersion. Micropor Mesopor Matter. 88, 38–47.

19. Lu W.J., Lu G.Z., Luo Y., 2002. A novel preparation method of ZnO/MCM-41 for hydrogenation of methyl benzoate.  J Mol Catal A: Chem. 188, 225-231.

20. Arruebo M., Galan M., Navascues N., Tellez C., Marquina C., Ibarra M.R., 2006. Development of Magnetic Nanostructured Silica-Based Materials as Potential Vectors for Drug-Delivery Applications. Chem Mater. 18, 1911-1919.

21. Mihai G. D., Meynen V., Mertens M., Bilba N., Cool P., Vansant E. F., 2010. ZnO nanoparticles supported on mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15: a comparative physicochemical and photocatalytic study. J Mater Sci, 45, 5786–5794.

22. Nanda B., Amaresh C.P., Parida K.M., 2017. Fabrication of mesoporous CuO/ZrO2-MCM-41 nanocomposites for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI). Chemical Engineering Journal. 316, 1122-1135.

23. Pourhasan‐Kisom R., Shirini F., Golshekan M., 2018. Introduction of organic/inorganic Fe3O4@MCM‐41@Zr‐piperazine magnetite nanocatalyst for the promotion of the synthesis of tetrahydro‐4H‐chromene and pyrano[2,3‐d] pyrimidinone derivatives. Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 32, e4485.

24. Rajabi S.K., Sohrabnezhad Sh., 2018. Fabrication and characteristic of Fe3O4@MOR@CuO core-shell for investigation antibacterial properties. J Fluorine Chem. 206, 36–42.

25. Dong A., Huang J., Lan S., Wang T., Xiao L., Wang W., Zha T., Zheng X., Liu F., Gao G., Chen Y.,  2011. Synthesis of N-halamine-functionalized silica–polymer core–shell nanoparticles and their enhanced antibacterial activity.  Nanotechnology. 22, 295602-295611.

26. Padervand M., Gholami M.R., 2013. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions from waste water by functionalized magnetic core–zeolites shell nanocomposite as adsorbents. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 20, 3900-3909.

27. Padervand M., Janatrostami S., Kiani Karanji A., Gholami M.R., 2014. Incredible antibacterial activity of noble metal functionalized magnetic core–zeolitic shell nanostructures. Mater Sci Eng C. 35, 115-121.

 28. Sohrabnezhad Sh., Valipour A., 2013. Synthesis of Cu/CuO nanoparticles in mesoporous material by solid state reaction. Spectrochimica Acta Part A, 114, 298–302.

29. Khorshidi A., Shariati Sh., 2014. Sulfuric acid functionalized MCM-41 coated on magnetite nanoparticles as a recyclable core–shell solid acid catalyst for three-component condensation of indoles, aldehydes and thiols. RSC Adv. 4, 41469-41469.

30. Balouiri M., Sadiki M., Ibnsouda S.K., 2016. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: A review Pharm Anal. 6, 71-79.

31. Jafarzadeh A., Sohrabnezhad Sh., Zanjanchi M.A., Arvand M., 2016. Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized MCM-41 nanofibers and its application as photocatalyst. Micropor Mesopor Mater. 236, 109-119.

32. Zhang T., Lin L., Zhang X.  , Liu H., Yan X., Qiu J., Yeung K.L., 2015. Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-8@SiO2@Fe3O4 core@double-shell microspheres with noble metal nanoparticles sandwiched between two shell layers. Mater Letter. 148, 17–21.

33. Schwertmann U., Cornell R.M., 2000. Iron Oxides in the Laboratory: Preparation and Characterization, 2nd, Completely Revised and Enlarged Edition. Wiley, New York.

34. Xie W., Ma N., 2009. Immobilized Lipase on Fe3O4 Nanoparticles as Biocatalyst for Biodiesel Production. Energy Fuels. 23, 1347–1353.

35.  Zhang J.M., Zhai S.R., Zhai B., An Q.D., Tian G., 2012. Crucial factors affecting the physicochemical properties of sol–gel produced Fe3O4@SiO2–NH2 core–shell nanomaterials.  J Sol-Gel Sci Technol. 64, 347–357.

36. Chen X., Lam K.F., Yeung K.L., 2011. Selective removal of chromium from different aqueous systems using magnetic MCM-41 nano sorbents. Chemical Engineering Journal, 172, 728– 734.

37. Kliche G., Popovic Z.V., 1990. Far-infrared spectroscopic investigations on CuO. Phys Rev B. 42, 10060–10066.

38. Moritz M., Geszke-Moritz M., 2013. The newest achievements in synthesis, immobilization and practical applications of antibacterial nanoparticles. Chemical Engineering Journal. 228, 596–613.

39. Azam A., Ahmed A.S., Oves M., Khan M.S., Habib S.S., Memic A., 2012. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study. Int J Nanomed. 7, 6003-6009.

40. Pandiyarajan T., Udayabhaskar R., 2013. Synthesis and concentration dependent antibacterial activities of CuO nanoflakes. Mater Sci Eng. C, 33, 2020-2024.

41. Ma Z., Ji H., Tan D., Teng Y., Dong G., Zhou J., Qiu J., Zhang M., 2011. Silver nanoparticles decorated, flexible SiO2 nanofibers with long-term antibacterial effect as reusable wound cover. Colloids Surf. A, 387, 57-64.

42. Wahab R., Tabrez Khan Sh, Dwivedi S., Ahamed M., Musarrat J., AlKhedhairy A.A.,  2013. Effective inhibition of bacterial respiration and growth by CuO microspheres composed of thin nanosheets. Colloids Surf. B, 111, 211–217.

43. Liu B.S., Xu D.F., Chu J.X., Liu W., Au C.T., 2007. Deep Desulfurization by the Adsorption Process of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Diesel over Mesoporous Al−MCM-41 Materials. Materials Energy Fuels. 21, 250-255.