Removal of Chromium (VI) from Wastewater by Palm Kernel Shell-based on a Green Method

Document Type: Original Article


1 1Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Borujerd, Iran

2 Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Boroujerdi University, Borujerd, Iran

3 Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran


The potential of palm kernel shell, as agricultural waste, to remove Cr (VI) from aqueous solution was evaluated. Effective parameters such as pH (2–8), temperature (20–80 °C), contact time (10-120 min), adsorbent concentration (0.1–1 g/L), and initial Cr (VI) concentration (10-100 mg/L) were all studied to attain the maximum removal efficiency. Results show the adsorption capacity increases as pH value decreases and the optimum pH value is pH= 2.0. The other optimal conditions are temperature 40 °C, contact time 45 min, adsorbent concentration 0.5 g/L and initial Cr (VI) concentration 10 mg/L. The equilibrium data for chromate adsorption well fitted to Freundlich equation, with maximum adsorption capacity of 125 mg/g. This novel activated carbon derived from palm shell powder has been found to be effective for the removal of Cr (VI) and not noxious to the ecosystem.


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