Application of Graphene Oxide Reinforced Hollow Fibers as a Novel Electromembrane Extraction Method for Quantitative Analysis of Dicyandiamide in Infant Formula

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA), Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOH), Tehran, Iran

3 Food and Drug Reference Control Laboratories Center, Food and Drug Organization, MOH & ME, Tehran, Iran


Dicyandiamide (DCD) is a nitrogenous compound which is generally used as a fertilizer, antimicrobial and nitrogen enrichment agent in soil. Grass and drinking water contamination with DCD may lead to presence of the chemical residues in milk and infant formula. The aim of this study was to investigate a rapid, simple and accurate method for quantitation of DCD in infant formula using electromemebrane extraction with reinforced hallow fiber by graphene oxide (GO-EME). The extraction method was optimized by solvent, graphene oxide concentration, voltage, stirring speed, pH and time parameters. After extraction, DCD was analyzed by HPLC coupled with UV/Vis detector. The analytical method validation parameters including accuracy, precision, LOD and LOQ were determined to ensure the method's validity.The calibration curve with a correlation ratio of 0.999 was obtained. The recoveries were from 78.0% to 80.0%. The LOD and LOQ were 0.04 mg L-1 and 0.1 mg L-1. This study indicates that the graphen oxide-electromembrane extraction is a simple, accurate and rapid method for determination of DCD in infant formula.


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