Presence of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Collected from Jashore, Bangladesh: Human Health Risk Assessment

Document Type : Original Article


1 Chemistry Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna-9208, Khulna, Bangladesh

2 Department of Chemistry, Khulna University of Engineering and Technology, Khulna, Bangladesh


This research was carried out to estimate the concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) and to assess the human health risk. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI), Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI) and Target Cancer Risk (TCR) were measured and the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks were calculated. The concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn except Cd and Pb were below the permission limit proposed by the joint FAO/WHO. Transfer factor of heavy metals from soil to vegetables was calculated and the decreasing order was Cu (0.786) > Cd (0.759) > Zn (0.569) > Pb (0.432) > Mn (0.167) > Fe (0.050). Assessment of non-carcinogenic health hazards by THQ indicated no concern for individual Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn except Cd and Pb. But the combined impact of all metals (HI = 8.64775) was very high than the acceptable limit of 1.0 for all vegetables. So, the consumption of these vegetables were the prime concern for non-carcinogenic health effects and all metals together may affect the human health as revealed by HI. The probability of developing cancer from the consumption of studied vegetable was greater than USEPA threshold risk limit (>10–5) for Mn (2.8E–3), Pb (1.17E–4) and Cu (9.5E–4); (> 10–3) for Zn (2.15E–2) and Fe (1.45E–1). These values indicated moderate cancer risk for Mn, Cu and Pb, high cancer risk for Fe and Zn whereas Cd showed low cancer risk from this study area.


1. Shakya P.R., Khwaounjoo N.M., 2013. Heavy Metal Contamination in Green Leafy Vegetables Collected from Different Markets Sites of Kathmandu and Their associated Health Risks. Sci World. 11(11), 37–42.
2. Prakash D., Upadhyay G., Gupta C., Pushpangadan P., Sing K.K., 2012. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Promising Wild Edible Fruits. Int Food Res J. 19(3), 1106–1116.
3. Wong C.S.C., Li X.D., Zhang G., Qi S.H., Peng X.Z., 2003. Atmospheric Depositions of Heavy Metals in the Pearl River Delta. China Atmos Environ. 37(6), 767–776.
 4. Khan S., Cao Q., Zheng Y.M., Huang Y.Z., Zhu Y.G., 2008. Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils and Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Beijing. China Environ Pol. 152, 686–692.
5. Luo C., Liu C., Wang Y., Liu X., Li F., Zhang G., Li X., 2011. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils and Vegetables Near an E-waste Processing Site, South China. J Hazard Materials. 186(1): 481–490.
6. Singh A., Sharma R.K., Agrawal M., Marshall F.M., 2010. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Toxicity through Contaminated Vegetables from Waste Water Irrigated Area of Varanasi, India. Tropical Ecol. 51(2), 375–387.
7. Sharma R.K., Agrawal M., Marshall F.M., 2008. Heavy Metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) Contamination of Vegetables in Urban India: A case study in Varanasi. Environ Pol. 154(2), 254–263.
8. Ali M.H.H., Al-Qahtani K.M., 2012. Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Vegetables, Cereals and Fruits in Saudi Arabian Markets. Egyptian J Aqua Res. 38(1), 31–37.
9. Parvin R., Sultana A., Zahid M.A., 2014. Detection of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Cultivated in Different Locations in Chittagong, Bangladesh. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol & Food Tech. 8(4), 58–63.
10. Jayadev Puttaih E.T., 2013. Assessment of Heavy Metals Uptake in Leafy Vegetables Grown on Long Term Wastewater Irrigated Soil Across Vrishabhavathi River, Bangalore, Karnataka. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol & Food Technol. 7(6), 52–55.
11. Guerra F., Trevizam A.R., Muraoka T., Marcante N.C., Canniatti-Brazaca S.G., 2011. Heavy Metals in Vegetables and Potential Risk for Human Health. Sci Agri. 69(1), 54–60.
12. Bui A.T., Nguyen H.T., Nguyen M.N., Tran T.H., Vu T.V., Nguyen C.H., Reynolds H., 2016. Accumulation and Potential Health Risks of Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic in Vegetables Grown Near Mining Sites in Northern Vietnam. Environ Monit Assess. 188(9), 525.
13. Kumar A., Seema., 2016. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Green Leafy Vegetables, Irrigated with Wastewater. IOSR J Environ Sci Toxicol & Food Technol. 10(10), 8–19.
14. Siddiqui M., 2012. Jessore District. In: Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Hossain A., Jamal, A.A., Eds., Asiatic Society of Bangladesh: Bangladesh.
15. Allen S.E., Grimshaw H.M., Rowland A.P., 1986. Chemical Analysis. In: Methods in Plant Ecology, Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B., Eds., Blackwell Scientific Publication, Blackwell: London. pp. 285–344.
16. Najah Z., Elsherif K.M., Alshtewi M., Attorshi H., 2015. Phyochemical Profile and Heavy Metals Contents of Codium Tomentosum and Sargassum Honschuchi. J Applicable Chem. 4(6), 1821–1827.
17. Mahfuza S.S., Jolly Y.N., Yeasmin S., Satter S., Islam A., Tareq S.M., 2014. Transfer of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides from Soil to Vegetables and Plants in Bangladesh. In: Soil remediation and plants: Prospects and challenges, Hakeem, K., Sabir, M., Ozturk, M., Mermut, A., Eds., Academic Press, Elsevier: London. pp. 331–336.
18. Chary N.S., Kamala C.T., Raj D.S., 2008. Assessing Risk of Heavy Metals from Consuming Food Grown on Sewage Irrigated Soil and Food Chain Transfer. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety. 69(3), 513–524.
19. Ali M., Hau V.T.B. Vegetables in Bangladesh: Economic and Nutritional Impact of New Varieties and Technologies, Technical Bulletin No. 25. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center: Taiwan, 2001.
20. Saha N., Zaman M.R., Rahman M.S., 2012. Heavy Metals in Fish, Fruits and Vegetables from Rajshahi, Bangladesh: A statistical Approach. J Nat Sci Sust Technol. 6(3), 237–252.
21. USEPA, 1989. Office of water regulations and standard: Guidance manual for assessing human health risks from chemically contaminated, fish and shellfish. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.
22. USEPA, 2011. USEPA regional screening level summary table. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.
23. USEPA, 2012. EPA region III risk-based concentration (RBC) table, region III. Environmental Protection Agency: 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
24. Guerra K., Konz J., Lisi K., Neeberem C., 2010. Exposure Factors Handbook. Environmental Protection Agency: Washington, DC, USA.
 25. FAO/WHO, 1989. National Research Council Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Academy Press: Washington, DC, USA.
26. FAO/WHO, 1993. Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: 41st report of the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives, WHO Technical Reports Series No. 837. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland.
27. FDA, 2001. Fish and fisheries products hazards and controls guidance. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition: Washington, DC.
28. Pendias A.K., Pendias H., 2000. Trace elements in Soils and Plants. CRC press: London.
29. FAO/WHO, Joint FAO/WHO, 1984. Food standards programme codex committee on contaminants in foods. Codex Alimentarious Commission: Geneva, Switzerland.
30. FAO/WHO, 2001. Food standards program codex alimentarius commission (ALINORM 01/12A), report of the food additives and contaminants. Codex Alimentarius Commission: Geneva, Switzerland.
31. Tasrina R.C., Rowshon A., Mustafizur A.M.R., Rafiqul I., Ali M.P., 2015. Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables and Its Growing Soil. J Environ Anal Chem. 2, 142-147.
32. Islam S., Ahmed M., Proshad R., Ahmed M.S., 2017. Assessment of Toxic Metals in Vegetables with the Health Implications in Bangladesh. Advan Environ Res. 6(4), 241–254.
33. Ratul A.K., Hassan M., Uddin M.K., Sultana M.S., Akbor M.A, Ahsan M.A., 2018. Potential Health Risk of Heavy Metals Accumulation in Vegetables Irrigated with Polluted River Water. Int Food Res J. 25(1), 329–338.
34. Elbagermi M.A., Edwards H.G.M., Alajtal A.I., 2012. Monitoring of Heavy Metal Content in Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Production and Market Sites in the Misurata Area of Libya. Int Scholarly Res Net Anal Chem. 1, 1–5.
35. Chen Y., Wu P., Shao Y., Ying Y., 2014. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Vegetables Grown around Battery Production Area.  Sci Agric. 71(2), 126–132.
36. Sharma R.K., Agarwal M., Marshall F.M. 2009. Heavy Metals in Vegetables Collected from Production and Market Sites of a Tropical Urban Area of India. Food Chem Toxicol. 47(1), 583–591.
37. Alamgir M., Islam M., Hossain N., Kibria M.G., Rahman M.M., 2015. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils of Chittagong City, Bangladesh. Int J Plant & Soil Sci. 7(6), 362–372.
38. Zabi A.A., Wahid M., Zzaman U., Hossen M. Z., Uddin M.N., Islam M.S., 2016. Spatial Dissemination of Some Heavy Metals in Soil Adjacent to Bhaluka Industrial Area, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. American J App Sci Res. 2(6), 38–47.
39. Begum K., Mohiuddin K.M., Zakir H.M., Rahman M.M., Hasan M.N., 2014. Heavy Metal Pollution and Major Nutrient Elements Assessment in the Soils of Bogra City in Bangladesh. Canadian Chem Transactions. 2, 316–326.
40. Sumi S.S., 2010. Toxic Metallic Contamination in Industrial Wastewater and Soils of Some Selected Areas of Gazipur, Bangladesh. MSc Thesis, Bangladesh Agricultural University: Mymensingh.
41. Sultana N., 2010. Nutrition Content and Heavy Metal Contamination in Some Roadside Soils and Grasses of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. M.Sc. Thesis, Bangladesh Agricultural University: Mymensingh.
42. Mottalib M.A., Somoal S.H., Shaikh M.A.A., Islam M.A., 2016. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Contaminated Soil and Vegetables of Tannery Area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Int J Current Res. 8(5), 30369–30373.
43. Ahmad J.U., Goni M.A., 2010. Heavy Metal Contamination in Water, Soil and Vegetables of the Industrial Areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess. 166, 347–357.
44. Pfeiffer E.M. 1988.Trace Elements and Heavy Metals in Soils and Plants of the Southeast Asian Metropolis Metro Manila and of Some Rice Cultivation Provinces in Luzon, Philippines. Verein zur Förderung d. Bodenkunde: Hamburg.
45. Wilcke W., 1998. Urban Soil Contamination in Bangkok: Heavy Metal and Aluminium Partitioning in Top soils.  Geoderma.  86(3), 211–228.
46. Manta D.S., Angelone M., Bellanca A., Neri R., Sprovieri M., 2002. Heavy Metals in Urban Soils: A Case Study from the City of Palermo, Italy.  Sci Tot Environ.  300(1), 229–243.
47. Malik R.N., Jadoon W.A., Husain S.Z., 2010. Metal Contamination of Surface Soils of Industrial City Sailkot, Pakistan: A Multivariate and GIS approach. Environ Geochem and Health. 32, 179–191.
48. Gowd S.S., Reddy M.R., Govil P.K., 2010. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Soils at Jajmau (Kanpur) and Unnao Industrial Areas of the Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Hazard Mat. 174, 113–121.
49. Zhang X.Y., Lin F.F., Wong M.T.F., Feng X.L., Wang K., 2009. Identification of Soil Heavy Metal Sources from Anthropogenic Activities and Pollution assessment of Fuyang City, China.  Environ Monit Assess. 154, 439–449.
50. Khan S., Farooq R., Sahabaz S., Khan M.A., Sadique M., 2009. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of Vegetables. World App Sci J. 6(12), 1602–1606.
51. Rattan R.K., Datta S.P., Chonkar P.K., Suribahu K., Singh A.K., 2005. Long Term Impact of Irrigation with Sewage Effluents on Heavy Metal Contents in Soil, Crops and Ground Water– A Case Study. Agri Ecosys & Environ. 109, 310–322.
52. NYSDOH, 2007. Hopewell precision area contamination: appendix C-NYS DOH, procedure for evaluating potential health risks for contaminants of concern. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: New York, USA.
53. Ambedkar G., Muniyan M., 2011. Bioaccumulation of Metals in the Five Commercially Important Freshwater Fishes in Vellar River, Tamil Nadu, India. Adv App Sci Res. 2(5), 221–225.
54. Li J., Huang Z.Y., Hu Y., Yang H. 2013. Potential Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals by Consuming Shellfish Collected from Xiamen, China. Environ Sci Pol Res. 20(5), 2937–2947.
Volume 8, Issue 4
December 2018
Pages 277-287
  • Receive Date: 10 November 2018
  • Revise Date: 24 November 2018
  • Accept Date: 23 July 2018
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2018