Highly Concentrated Ferrus Removal from Groundwater Using Powdered Activated Carbon as Adsorbent


Vali-e Asr Avenue, Tehran, Iran


In this study, powdered activated carbon was used as an absorbent to reduce Fe (II) ions concentration of groundwater. The adsorption behavior of Fe (II) ions was studied by varying parameters including the dosage of powdered activated carbon, pH of solution, initial concentration of Fe (II) and contact time. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also investigated based on Fe (II) adsorption tests. The optimized adsorption conditions were used for reducing iron concentration of groundwater derived from deep wells in Marand Plain with agricultural purposes in April 2017. An increase in contact time and adsorbent dosage resulted in increase of adsorption rate. The optimum condition of Fe (II) removal process was found at pH=4, 0.45 g adsorbent dosage, 10 mg/l initial concentration of Fe (II) and contact time of 30 min. The removal percent was equal to 97.21 at optimal conditions. Langmuir and Freundlich's models were employed to analyze the experimental data. Langmuir model fitted well with the correlation coefficient (R2=0.995) with adsorption capacity of qmax=205.2 mg/g. According to results of analysis of the kinetic data by the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations, we found that the adsorption of Fe (II) using PAC follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients (R2) equals to 0.9995, 0.9996 and 0.9993 for 10, 20 and 30 mg/l Fe (II) concentrations, respectively. In addition, the reaction is spontaneous and endothermic. In optimal conditions, this adsorbent can be suitable for improving the quality of ground water containing high iron concentrations.


  1. Kaur L., Gadgil K., Sharma S., 2015. Assessment of phytoextranction potential of fenugreek (TrigonellaenumgraecumL.) to remove heavy metals (Pb and Ni) from contmaminated soil.J Chem Health Risk.5(1), 1-14.
  2. Su Y., Adeleye A., Huang Y., Zhou Z., Akeller A., Zhong Y., 2016. Direct synthesis of novel and reactive sulfide modified nano iron through nanoparticle seed-ing for improved cadmium-contaminated water treat-ment.Sci Rep. 6(24358), 1ââ‚‌“14.
  3. Hejazi H.A., 2013. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using agricultural and industrial wastes as adsorbents. HBRC J. 9(3), 276-282.
  4. Runtti H., Tuomikoski S., Kangas T., Lassi U., Kuokkanen T., Rämö J., 2014. Chemically activated carbon residue from biomass gasification as a sorbent for iron (II), copper (II) and nickel (II) ions. J Water Process Eng. 4, 12-24.
  5. Park J.H., Chon H.T., 2016. Characterization of cadmium biosorption by Exiguobacterium sp. isolated from farmland soil near Cuââ‚‌“Pbââ‚‌“Zn mine. Environ SciPollut Res Int. 23(12), 11814ââ‚‌“11822.
  6. Pratte-Santos R., Ribeiro A., Oliveira J., 2016. Guidelines for recreation water quality in Brazil, USA and Canada: enteric viruses as faecal pollution indica-tors. J Trop Dis. 4(2), 195-196.
  7. Karnib M., Kabbani A., Holail H., and Olama Z., 2014. Heavy metals removal using activated carbon, silica and silica activated carbon composite.Energy Procedia. 50, 113-120.
  8. Gao J., 2016. Green modification of outer selective P84 nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes for cadmium removal. J Membr Sci. 499, 361ââ‚‌“369.
  9. Prapagdee S., Piyatiratitivorakul S., Petsom A., 2016. Physicochemical activation on rice husk biochar for enhancing of cadmium removal from aqueous solution. Asian J Water Environ Pollut. 13(1), 27-34.
  10. Khan T.A., Chaudhry S.A., Ali I., 2015. Equilibrium uptake, isotherm and kinetic studies of Cd (II) adsorption onto iron oxide activated red mud from aqueous solution. J Mol Liq. 202, 165-175.
  11. Dinh-Minh T., Lee B-K., 2016. Effects of func-tionality and textural characteristics on the removal of Cd(II) by ammoniated and chlorinated nanoporous activated carbon. Material Cycles and Waste Man-agement J. 19(3), 1022-1035.
  12. Liou T.H., 2010. Development of mesoporous structure and high adsorption capacity of biomass-based activated carbon by phosphoric acid and zinc chloride activation.ChemEng J. 158(2), 129-142.
  13. Yang J., Qiu K., 2011. Development of high sur-face area mesoporous activated carbons from herb residues. ChemEng J. 167(1), 148-154.
  14. Kang S., Jian-chun J., Dan-dan C., 2011. Prepara-tion of activated carbon with highlydevelopedmesoporous structure from Camellia oleifera shell through water vapor gasification and phosphoric acidmodification.Biomass.Bioenerg. 35 (8), 3643-3647.
  15. Angın D., Altintig E., Köse, T. E., 2013. Influence of process parameters on the surface and chemical properties of activated carbon obtained from biochar by chemical activation. Bioresource Technol.148, 542-549.
  16. Babel S., and Kurniawan T. A., 2004. Cr (VI) removal from synthetic wastewater using coconut shell charcoal and commercial activated carbon modified with oxidizing agents and/or chitosan. Chemosphere. 54(7), 951-967.
  17. Angin D., 2014. Production and characterization of activated carbon from sour cherry stones by zinc chloride. Fuel. 115, 804-811.
  18. Al-Othman Z., Ali R., Naushad M., 2012. Hexava-lent chromium removal from aqueous medium by activated carbon prepared from peanut shell: adsorp-tion kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. ChemEng J. 184, 238-247.
  19. Yang J., Qiu K., 2010. Preparation of activated carbons from walnut shells via vacuum chemical acti-vation and their application for methylene blue
  20. removal. ChemEng J. 165 (1), 209-217.
  21. Imamoglu M., Tekir O., 2008. Removal of copper (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by ad-sorption on activated carbon from a new precursor hazelnut husks.Desalination. 228(1), 108-113.21. Moghadam M.R., Nasirizadeh N., Dashti Z., Babanezhad E., 2014. Removal of Fe (II) from aque-ous solution using pomegranate peel carbon: equilib-rium and kinetic studies. Int J Ind Chem. 4(1), 4-19.
  22. Ahmed M.J., Theydan S.K., 2012. Physical and chemical characteristics of activated carbon prepared by pyrolysis of chemically treated date stones and its ability to adsorb organics. Powder Technol. 229, 237-245.
  23. Sahu J., Acharya J., Meikap B., 2010. Optimiza-tion of production conditions for activated carbons from Tamarind wood by zinc chloride using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technol. 101(6), 1974-1982.
  24. Okoniewska E., Lach J., Kacprzak M., Neczaj E., 2007. The removal of manganese, iron and ammonium notrigen on impregnated activated carbon.Dealination. 206 (1-3), 251-258.
  25. Jusoh A., Cheng W.H., Low W.M., Noraini A., MegatMohd Noor M.J., 2005. Study on removal of iron and manganese in groundwater by granular acti-vated carbon. Dealination. 182 (1-3), 347-353.
  26. Javanbakht M., Mohammadi S., Akbari-Adergani B., 2012. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction of dipyridamole from complex biological fluids.Journal LiqChromatogr.R.T. 35, 2669-2684.
  27. Pourfarzib M., Shekarchi M., Rastegar H., Akbari-adergani B., Mehramizi A. Dinarvand R., 2015. Mo-lecularly imprinted nanoparticles prepared by miniemulsion polymerization as a sorbent for selective extraction and purification of efavirenz from human serum and urine. J Chromatogr B. 974, 1-8.
  28. Pourfarzib M., Rastegar H., Akbari-Adergani B., Mehramizi A., Dinarvand R., Shekarchi M., 2015. Water compatible molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for selective extraction and purification of adefovir from human serum and urine. J Sep Sci. 38, 1755-1762.
  29. Attaran A.M., Mohammadi N., Javanbakht M., Akbari-adergani B., 2014. Molecularly imprinted
  30. solid-phase extraction for selective trace analysis of trifluoperazine. J Chromatogr Sci. 52, 730-738.
  31. Moein M.M., El-baqqali A., Javanbakht M.,Karimi M., Akbari-adergani B., Abdel-rehim M., 2014.On-line detection of hippuric acid by microextraction with a molecularly-imprinted polysulfonemembrane sorbent and liquid chromatog-raphy-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 1372, 55-62.
  32. Moein M.M., Javanbakht M., Karimi M., Akbari-adergani B., Abdel-Rehim M., 2015. A new strategy for surface modification of polysulfone membrane by in situ imprinted sol-gel method for the selective sepa-ration and screening of L-Tyrosine as a lung cancer biomarker.Analyst. 140, 1939-1946.
  33. Akbari-adergani B., Sadeghian G.H., Alimohammadi A., Esfandiari Z., 2017. Integrated photografted molecularly imprinted polymers with a cellulose
  34. acetate membrane for the extraction of melamine from dry milk before HPLC analysis. J Sep Sci. 40, 1361-1368.
  35. Taghavi M., Zazouli M.A., Yousefi Z., Akbari-adergani B., 2015. Kinetic and isotherm modeling of Cd(II) adsorption by L-cysteine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent. Environ.Monit Assess. 187(11), 682-691.
  36. Guo Y., Qi J., Yang S., Yu K., Wang Z., Xu H., 2003. Adsorption of Cr (VI) on micro-and mesoporous rice husk-based active carbon. Mate Chem Phys. 78(1), 132-137.
  37. Ayrilmis N., Kaymakci A., Ozdemir F., 2013. Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of poly-propylene composites filled with walnut shell flour. J IndEng Chem. 19(3), 908-914.
  38. Pirzadeh K., Ghoreyshi A.A.,2014. Phenol removal from aqueous phase by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from paper mill sludge. Desalination and Water Treatment.52, 34-36
  39. Gorzin F., Ghoreyshi A.A., 2013. Synthesis of a new low-cost activated carbon from activated sludge for the removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solution: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies. Korean. J Chem Eng. 30(8), 1594-1602.
  40. Hu C., Sedghi S., Madani S.H., Silvestre-AlberoA., Sakamoto H., Kwong P., 2014. Control of the pore size distribution and its spatial homogeneity in particulate activated carbon.Carbon. 78, 113-120.