The Effect of Natural and Chemical Compounds on Rooting Traits of Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis L.)


Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran


Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis L.) is an evergreen, difficult-to-root ornamental plant with plentiful applications in green spaces. One of the effective methods in plants propagation is the use of hormonal compounds such as indole butyric acid. Despite the positive effects of these hormones on rooting process, their chemical nature causing environmental risks. Thus, the use of alternative natural compounds with favorable influence to create environmental health and living creatures is important. This experiment was conducted to examine the impact of natural carbohydrate compounds and chemical hormonal compounds on the rooting traits of bougainvillea in the research greenhouse of Gorgan Agricultural Research Center and in the Horticulture Laboratory of Department of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agriculture Science and Natural Resources, Iran in 2015-2016. The study was based on a Completely Randomized Design with six treatments (indole butyric acid (IBA), aspirin pills, LD pills, natural honey, grape syrup, and gum Arabic), each at four rates, and a control with five replications, each one including five cuttings. The natural and chemical treatments influenced rooting traits including rooting percentage, the number of primary and secondary roots, primary root length, root fresh and dry weight, and survival rate of the cuttings significantly at the 1% level. The treatments of 4000 ppm IBA and 10% grape syrup exhibited significant differences with other studied treatments, control, and displayed the best quantity and quality of the rooting. However, 20% gum Arabic and honey, 4 pills L-1 (320 mg L-1) aspirin, and 4 pills L-1 (0.72 mg L-1) LD were related to the best rooting of the cuttings as compared to other treatments and control. Given the effectiveness of natural compounds like grape syrup on the rooting of bougainvillea cuttings, because of the natural and non-chemical nature, their cost-effectiveness, organic and friendly environmentally it is recommended to use them.


  1. Singh K., Rawat J., Tomar Y., 2011. Influence of IBA on rooting potential of torch glory Bougainvillea glabra during winter season. J Hort Sci Orn Plant. 3(2), 162-165.
  2. Ghasemi ghahsareh M., Kafi M., Floriculture, Moallef Press: Tehran, 2009.
  3. Khoshkhooy M., Plant propagation (Basis and Methods), Shiraz University Press: Shiraz, 2012.
  4. Weaver R.J., Plant Growth Substances in Agricul-ture, W.H. Freeman and Co: San Francisco, 1972.
  5. Salehi Sardoei A., Shahmoradzadeh S., Ghasemi, H., 2014. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Rooting of Poin-settia (Euphorbia pulcherrima). Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res. 2(6), 1883-1886.
  6. Salehi Sardoei A., Sarhadi H., Rahbarian P., Rohany Y., Arbabi M., Jahantigh M., 2013. Effect of plant growth regulators on rooting of henna (Lawsonia inermis L.). Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res. 1(11), 1466-1470.
  7. Erdl S., Dumlupinar R., 2009. Progesterone and β-Estradiol Stimulate Seed Germination in Chickpea by Causing Important Changes in Biochemical Parameters. Z Naturefrosch C. 65 (3-4), 239- 244.
  8. Gooran, A., Jeyrani, M., Hayatolgheibi, M.H., Mozafari A.A., 2013. In: Study the effect of Sex hormone testosterone on grape (Vitis vinifera) and apple (Malus domestica) explants in in vitro conditions. 1-4.
  9. Love A., Love D., 1945. Experiments on the effects of animal sex hormones on dioecious plants. Ark Bot. 32(15), 1-60.
  10. Greenwood M.S., Berlyn G.P., 1973. Sucrose-indole-3- acetic acid interactions on root regeneration by Pinus lambertiana embryo cuttings. Am J Bot. 60, 42-47.
  11. Haissig B.E., 1982. Carbohydrate and amino acid concentration during adventitious root primordium development in Pinus banksiana Lamb, cuttings. Forest Sci. 61, 13-19.
  12. Moore K.G., Cobb A., Lovell P.H., 1972. Effects of sucrose on rooting and senescence in detached Raphanus sativus L. cotyledons. J Exp Bot. 23, 65-74.
  13. Loach K., Whalley D.N., 1978. Water and carbohydrate relationships during the rooting of cuttings. Acta Hort. 79, 161-168.
  14. Eliasson L., 1978. Effects of nutrients and light on growth and root formation in Pi sum sativum cuttings. Physiol Plant. 43, 13-18.
  15. Moncousin C., 1991. Rooting of micro-cuttings: general aspects. Acta Hort. 289, 301-310.
  16. Sitbone F., Parrot-Rechenmann C., 1997. Expres-sion of auxin-regulated genes. Plant Physiol. 100, 443-455
  17. Hartmann H.T., Kester D.E., Davies F.T., Geneve R.L., Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices, Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 2002.
  18. Dozham M., Daneshmandi SH. Study the effect of indole butyric acid and position of cuttings on rooting of stem cuttings of Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis willd).7th Congress of Iranian Horticultural Sciences, 2012. pp. 242-247.
  19. Noor C.A.N., Thohirah L.A., Abdullah N.A.P., Khidir O.M., 2009. Improvement on rooting quality of Jatropha curcas using indole butyric acid (IBA). Res J Agric Biol Sci. 5(4), 338-343.
  20. Haissig B.E., 1974. Metabolism during adventitious root formation initiation and develop-ment. NZ J For Si. 4 (2), 324-337.
  21. Hassankhah A., Vahdati K., Lotfi M., Mirma-soumi, M., Preece, J., Assareh, M.H., 2014. Effects of Ventilation and Sucrose Concentrations on the Growth and Plantlet Anatomy of Micropropagated Persian Walnut Plants. Int J Hor Sci Tech. 1(2), 111-120.
  22. Zarrinbal M., Moallemi N.A., Daneshvar M.H., 2006. The effect of different concentrations of auxin, time of cutting and environmental conditions on rooting of the semi-hardwood cuttings of Callistemon viminalis sol. J Hor Sci Tech. 6(3), 121-134.
  23. Tatari V.A. Valuation of effect of some natural compounds on rooting of stem cuttings in ornamental
  24. berberis (Berberis thunbergii var Atropurpurea). M.Sc Thesis, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 2016.
  25. Shahhoseini R., Moghaddam M., Kiani D., Mansori R., 2015. Effect of different concentrations of IBA and NAA on rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Iran J Med Aroma Plant. 31(4), 576-586.
  26. Singh S., 1992. Influence of auxins and planting time on carbohydrate and nitrogen fractions in semi-hardwood cuttings of Callistemon lanceolatus at root emergence-II. Adv Horti Forest. 2,165-171
  27. Wiesrnan Z., Lavee S., 1995. Relationship of Car-bohydrate Sources and Indole-3-butyric Acid in Olive Cuttings. Aust J Plant Physiol. 22, 811-816
  28. Haissig B.E., 1989. Carbohydrate relations during propagation of cuttings from sexually mature Pinus banksiana trees. Tree Physiology. 5, 319-328.
  29. Bohm W. Methods of studying root system, Springer-verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1979.
  30. Rome R.C., Carison R.F. Rootstock for fruit crops. John Wiley and sons, USA, 1987. pp. 217-265.
  31. Shams E., Etemadi N., Mortezaei Nezhad F., 2015. Effects of indole butyric acid on rooting of hardwood cuttings of Sophora japonica L. J Sci Technol Greenhouse Cul. 6(23), 63-77.
  32. Ibironke A., 2016. Effects of Rooting Hormones on the Propagation of Bougainvillea from Cuttings. Int J Res Agri Forest. 3(1), 57-62
  33. Wooldridge J.M., Blazich F.A., Warren S.L., 2009. Propagation of eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis) by stem cuttings is influenced by clone and date of cutting collection. J Environ Horti. 27(2), 109-114.
  34. Habii Kootanaei S.H., 2011. Effect of different concentration of auxin on rooting of semi-wood oleander (Nerium oleander). J Plant Sci Res. 18(2), 36-46.
  35. Assareh M.H., Abravesh Z., Tabaei Aghdaei S.R., 2011. Study of rooting in shoots of Rosa damascena Mill. through simple layering under different hormone treatments in two different seasons. Iran J Med Aroma Plant. 26(4), 491-499.
  • Receive Date: 03 September 2017
  • Revise Date: 23 May 2022
  • Accept Date: 29 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 29 October 2018