Analysis and Health Risk Assessment of Arsenic and Zinc in Ghee Consumed in Kermanshah City, Western Iran using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry


1 Department of the Environment, Hamedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan, Iran

2 Department of the Environmental Pollution, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


This study was carried out for analysis and non-carcinogenic risk assessment of arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) in some of consumed brands of ghee marketed in Kermanshah City, western Iran in 2015. For this purpose, 12 samples of four popular brands of ghee were analyzed for levels of As and Zn after digestion with acids using atomic absorption spectrometry in 3 replications and health index was obtained. The results showed that the mean concentrations of As and Zn in ghee samples were 0.37±0.12 and 272.83±81.55 µg/kg, respectively. The mean concentration of As and Zn in ghee samples were lower than WHO maximum permissible limits (100 µg/kg for As and 10000 µg/kg for Zn). In addition, health risk assessment showed that no potential risk for children and adult by consume of the ghee samples. According to the results, although consumption of studied ghee has not adverse effect on the consumers’ health, but concerning to the grazing the livestock on soils polluted by heavy metals due to the increased use of agricultural inputs by farmers, industrial development and establishment of pastures near the roads, it is very important to take the appropriate measures during the production process and the treat products before selling them to markets by companies.


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Volume 7, Issue 1 - Serial Number 1
January 2017
Pages 71-76
  • Receive Date: 01 January 2017
  • Revise Date: 07 December 2019
  • Accept Date: 29 October 2018
  • First Publish Date: 29 October 2018