Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar, Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry Lagos state University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
Alterations in the homeostasis of biomolecules and multiple organ dysfunctions associated with cigarette smoke may suggest a dose dependent mechanism. This study assessed the triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin (TSH), calcium (Ca), albumin and vitamin C levels in relation to smoking pack years (SPY) in male active smokers. Ninety consenting males (18-60 yr) comprising of moderate smokers (n=26), light smokers (n=24) and non-smokers (n=40) were studied. Triiodothyronine, thyroxine, TSH and cotinine were determined by ELISA, calcium, albumin and vitamin C by colorimetry. The BMI, calcium, albumin, vitamin C and TSH were higher and cotinine, T3 and T4 lower in non-smokers compared to moderate and light smokers. Light smokers had higher BMI, vitamin C and TSH and lower cotinine, T3 and T4 compared to moderate smokers. In smokers, cotinine correlated positively with SPY (r = 0.838, P = 0.000), T3 (r=0.339, P = 0.005), T4 (r = 0.443, P = 0.001) and negatively with BMI (r = -0.478, P = 0.000), vitamin C (r=-0.407, P=0.003) and TSH (r = -0.510, P = 0.000) while SPY correlated positively with T3 (r=0.586, P = 0.000), T4 (r = 0.608, P = 0.000) and negatively with BMI (r = -0.597, P = 0.000), vitamin C (r = -0.599, P = 0.000), albumin (r = -0.281, P = 0.048) and TSH (r = -0.578, P = 0.000). Cigarette smoking and increasing smoking pack year may be associated with abnormal thyroid function and altered calcium, albumin and vitamin C homeostasis.