Long-term Effects of Betamethasone on Epididymal Tissue, Epididymal Sperm Counts and Fertility in Male Mice

Authors

1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Medicine, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

Abstract

Recent studies show that synthetic glucocorticoids alter testicular homeostasis, In this regard, the influence of Betamethasone as a glucocorticoid widely used on histological changes, epididymal sperm counts and fertility was explored in male mice. The study sample (50 mice) was allocated to 3 treatment groups, placebo and a control group. Control group was no injected. Only normal saline was given to the placebo group and Betamethasone (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) was injected to the treatment group in peritoneum for 20 days (every other day). After treatment periods, two mice from each group were selected to measure fertility and each male with two females mice were kept for 15 days. After two weeks, the female mice were sedated and the number of embryos in the uterine horn was counted. However, epididymal sperm was counted in others mice by preparation epididymal suspension. The data analysis was done in SPSS through the Duncan's multiple ranges test. Evaluation of epididymal sections under the microscope showed difference between the group treated in epididymal tissue sections and the control group. This means that the amount of spermatozoa in treated groups with Betamethasone was lower than in the control group. Epididymal sperm and the fertility rate in all doses of Betamethasone significantly decreased compared with the control group. However, increasing the dose of Betamethasone fertility rate also non-significantly decreased. It seems that glucocorticoids like the Betamethasone affect testicular function and spermatogenesis Causes reduced fertility and have adverse effects on male reproduction.

Keywords


  1. Julia C.B., 2006. Glucocorticoids: exemplars of multi-tasking. Br J Pharmacol. 147(1), 258-268.
  2. Challis J.R.G., Davies I.J., Benirschke K., Hendrickx A.G., Ryan K.J., 1974. The effects of dexamethasone on plasma steroid levels and fetal adrenal histology in the pregnant rhesus monkey. Endocrinology. 95(5), 1300-1305.
  3. Challis J.R.G., Braun T., Li S., Moss T.J.M., Newnham J.P., Gluckman P.D., Sloboda D.M., 2007. Maternal betamethasone administration reduces binucleate cell number and placental lactogen in sheep. J Endocrinol. 194(1), 337-347.
  4. Hardy M.P., Gao H.B., Dong Q., Chai W.R., 2005. Stress hormone and male reproductive function. Cell Tissue Res. 322(1), 147-153.
  5. Moss T.J., Nitsos I., Harding R., Newnham J.P., 2003. Differential effects of maternal and fetal betamethasone injections in late-gestation fetal sheep. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation. 10(8), 474-479.
  6. Elimian A., Garry D., Figueroa R., Spitzer A., Wiencek V., Quirk J.G., 2007. Antenatal betamethasone compared with dexamethasone (Betacode Trial). Obstet Gynecol. 110(1), 26-30.
  7. Fioratti E.G., Villaverde A.I.S.B., Melo C.M., Tsunemi M., Papa F.O., Alvarenga M.A., 2012. Influence of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on viability and fertility of equine semen. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 32(12), 771-775.
  8. Roberts D., Dalziel S., 2007. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 109(1), 189-190.
  9. Peltoniemi O.M., Kari M.A., Tammela O., 2007. Randomized trial of a single repeat dose of prenatal betamethasone treatment in imminent preterm birth. Pediatrics. 119(2), 290-298.
  10. Hashemi, M., Hosseini, S. Reproductive Physiology: Reproduction of Applications in Domestic Animal, 3rd ed, Publications of Farhang Jaame: Tehran, 2001.
  11. Maleki E., 2006. Technical methods and devices used in pathology. Med & Lab Engineering Magazine. 69, 5-8.
  12. Boekelheide K., Fleming S.L., Johnson K.J., Patel S.R., Schoenfeld H.A., 2000. Role of Sertoli cells in injury-associated testicular germ cell apoptosis. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 225(2), 105-115.
  13. Zamiri M.J., Physiology of Reproduction, 2rd ed, Haghshenass Publications, 2009.
  14. Khlkute S.D., 1977. Effects of hibiscus rosa sinesis on spermatogenesis and accessory reproductive organ in rat. Planta Medica. 31(2), 127-135.
  15. Allard E., Boekelheide K., 1996. Fate of germ cells in 2, 5-hexandione-induced testicular injury. II. Atrophy persists due to a reduced stem cell mass and ongoing apoptosis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 137(2), 149-156.
  16. Khorsandi L., Hashemitabar M., Orazizadeh M., 2008. The study of Bax protein expression in Dexamethasone induced apoptosis in spermatogenic cells in mice. Medical Science Journal of Islamic Azad University Tehran Medical Branch. 18(3), 141-148