Influence of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Vermicompost Application on Flower Yield and Essential Oil of Chamomile (Matricaria Chamomile L.)


Deptartment of Agronomy, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran


   This study was performed to assess the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost on qualitative and quantitative yield of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). It was conducted at the Research Fields of Ran Company located in Firouzkouh, Iran, in 2013. Treatments were consisted of 1) Control, 2) 100% nitrogen from urea, 3) 100% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate, 4) 75% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 5) 75% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 6) 50% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost , 7) 50% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, 8) 25% nitrogen from urea and 25% from vermicompost, 9) 25% nitrogen from ammonium nitrate and 25% from vermicompost, and 10) 100% nitrogen from vermicompost. The maximum plant height (67.03 cm) and plant weight (93.21 g/plant) were obtained at N2 treatment (200 kg ha-1 urea). N5 treatment (202.5 kg ha-1 ammonium nitrate + 1.5 ton vermicompost ha-1) caused maximum flower diameter. The highest fresh flower yield (7539.45 kg ha-1), dry flower yield (1715.93 kg ha-1) and essential oil yield (6.95 kg ha-1) obtained in plots, which received 135 kg ha-1 nitrate ammonium + 3 ton vermicompost ha-1. It seems using biofertilizers such as vermicompost could enhance quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chamomile. Moreover, by substituting chemical fertilizers by biofertilizers, ecosystem health and quality of life will increase which it is the most important goals of sustainable developments. 


  1. Mosleh Z., Salehi M.H., Rafiei Alhosseini M., 2014. Effects of chamomile cultivation and manure on silt and clay changes in soils. J Agric Environ. 18(68), 11-21.
  2. Dastgheibifard N., Sharafzadeh S., Bazrafshan F., 2014. Influence of cow manure vermicompost on growth characteristics of German chamomile. Cibtech J Zool. 3(1), 58-61.
  3. Sharafzadeh S., Alizadeh O., 2011. German and Roman chamomile. J App Pharm Sci. 1(10), 1-5.
  4. Baghalian K., 2000. Recent advances of medicinal and aromatic plants in Iran. Chronica Hortic. 40, 13ââ‚‌“14.
  5. Ghani A., Azizi M., Hasanzadeh Khayyat M., Pahlavanpour A., 2008. Essential oil composition of Achillea eriophora, A. nobilis, A. biebersteinii and A. wilhelmsii from Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Pl. 11(5), 460-467.
  6. Elsen T.V., 2000. Species diversity as a task for organic agriculture in Europe. Agr Ecosyst Environ. 77, 101-109.
  7. Emonger V.E., Chweya J.A., 1992. Effect of nitrogen and variety on essential oil yield and composition of chamomile flowers. Trop Agr. 69, 290-292.
  8. Heneka N., 1993. Chamomilla recutita L. Aust J Med Herbal. 5, 33-39.
  9. Letchamo W., 1992. A comparative study of chamomile yield, essential oil and flavonoids content under two sowing seasons and nitrogen levels. Acta Hort. 306, 375-384.
  10. Karami A., Khush-Khui M., Sefidkon F., 2008. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium on yield, essential oil content and composition of cultivated and wild population of Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert. J Med Aroma Plant Sci. 30, 1-4.
  11. Pandey R., 2005. Mangement of Meloidogyne incognita in Artemisia pallens with bio-organics. Phytoparasitica. 33(3), 304-308.
  12. Ashwini K.M., Sridhar K.R., 2006. Evaluation of pill millipede (Arthrosphaera magna) compost on plant growth and dry matter yield. J Environ. Agr Food Chem. 5, 1323ââ‚‌“1329.
  13. Najm A.A., Haj Seyed Hadi M.R., Fazeli F., Darzi M.T., Rahi A., 2012. Effect of integrated management of nitrogen fertilizer and cattle manure on the leaf chlorophyll, yield, and tuber glycoalkaloids of Agria potato. Commun Soil Sci Plant. 43(6), 912-923.
  14. Nikolova A., Kozhuharova K., Zheljazkov V.D., Craker L.E., 1999. Mineral nutrition of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.). Acta Hort. 502, 203-208.
  15. Darzi M.T., Haj Sayed Hadi M.R., Rejali F., 2012. Effects of the application of vermicompost and nitrogen fixing bacteria on quantity and quality of the essential oil in dill (Anethum graveolens). J Med Plants Res. 6(21), 3793-3799.
  16. Liu M., Hu F., Chen X., Huang Q., Jiao J., Zhang B., Li H., 2009. Organic amendments with reduced chemical fertilizer promote soil microbial development and nutrient availability in a subtropical paddy field: the influence of quantity, type and application time of organic amendments. Appl Soil Ecol. 42, 166-175.
  17. Kapoor R., Giri B., Mukerji K.G., 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technol. 93, 307-311.
  18. Shaalan M.N., 2005. Effect of compost and different sources of biofertilizers, on borage plants (Borago officinalis L.). Egypt J Agr Res. 83(1), 271-284.
  19. Omidi H., Naghdibadi H.A., Golzad A., Torabi H., Fotookian M.H., 2009. Effects of chemical and biological nitrogen fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). J Med Plants. 9(30), 98-109.
  20. Manaffee W.F., Kloepper J.W., 1994. Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in sustainable agriculture. p. 23-31. C.E. Paankburst et al. (ed.) Soil biota management in sustainable farming systems. CSIRO, Pub. East Melbourne, Australia.
  21. Sadeghi A.A., Klarestaghi K., Ghalibaf K., 2014. Effects of urea fertilizer and vermicompost on yield of Althea officinalis L. J Agroecol. 6(1), 42-50.
  22. Heidarianpoor M.B., Sameni A., Sheikhi J., Karimian N., Zareie M., 2014. Effects of vermicompost and nitrogen on vegetative growth and nutrient uptake by sunflower. J Agr Environ. 18(67), 217-227.
  23. Gutierez-Miceli F.A., Santiago-Borraz J., Montes Molina J.A., Carlos Nafate C., Abud-Archila M., Oliva Laven M.A., Rincon-Rosales R., Dendooven L., 2007. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Bioresource Technol. 98, 2781-2786.
  24. Ali M., Griffiths A.J., Williams K.P., Jones D.L., 2007. Evaluating the growth characteristics of lettuce in vermicompost and green waste compost. J Soil Biol. 43, S316-S319.
  25. Chaoui H.I., Zibilske L.M., Ohno T., 2003. Effects of earthworm casts and compost on soil microbial activity and plant nutrient availability. Soil Biol Biochem. 35, 295-302.
  26. Singh R., Sharma R.R., Kumar S., Gupta R.K., Patil R.T., 2008. Vermicompost substitution inïÂ‌‚uences growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Bioresource Technol. 99, 8507-8511.
  27. Fernandez-Luqueno F., Reyes-Valera V., Martinez-Suarez C., Salmon-Hernandez G., Yanez-Menese J., Ceballos-Ramirez J.M., Dendooven L., 2010. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bioresource Technol. 101, 396-403.
  28. Suthar S., 2009. Impact of vermicompost and composted farmyard manure on growth and yield of garlic (Allium stivum L.) field crop. Int J Plant Prod. 3(1), 27-38.
  29. Najar I.A., Khan A.B., 2013. Effect of Vermicompost on Growth and Productivity of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Under Field Conditions. Acta Biol Malaysiana. 2(1), 12-21.
  30. Anwar M., Patra D.D., Chand S., Alpesh K., Naqvi A.A., Khanuja S.P.S., 2005. Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oil yield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Commun. Soil Sci Plant. 36(13-14), 1737-1746.
  31. Verma S., Choudhary M.R., Yadav B.L., Jakhar M.L., 2013. Influence of vermicompost and sulphur on growth and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) under semi-arid climate. J Spice Aroma Crops. 22(1), 20-23.
  32. Godara A.S., Gupta U.S., Lal G., Singh R., 2014. Influence of organic and inorganic source of fertilizers on growth, yield and economics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Int J Seed Spice. 4(2), 77-80.
  33. Ansarifar M., Noormohamadi G., Seyed Hadi M.R.H., Riazi G., 2012. Effect of organic nutrients on flower yield and oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). J Med Plants By-products. 2, 177-181.
  34. Sirousmehr A., Arabi J., Asgharipour M.R., 2014. Effect of drought stress levels and organic manures on yield, essential oil content and some morphological characteristics of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Adv Environ Biol. 8(4), 880-885.
  35. Ghazi Manas M., Banj Shafiee S., Haj Seyed Hadi M.R., Darzi M.T., 2013. Effects of vermicompost and nitrogen on quantitative and qualitative yeild of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iran J Med Aroma Plants. 29(2), 269-280.
  36. Azizi M., Rezwanee F., Hassanzadeh Khayat M., Lakzian A., Neamati H., 2008. The effect of different levels of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological properties and essential oil content of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita variety Goral). Iran J Med Aroma Plants. 24(1), 82-93.
  37. Letchamo W., Marquard R., 1993. The pattern of active substances accumulation in chamomile genotypes under different growing conditions and harvesting frequencies. Acta Hort. 331, 357-364.
  38. SAS Inc., 2002. SAS Procedure guide. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Schank.
  39. Niknejad M., Lebaschy M.H., Jaimand K., Hatami F., 2013. Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on essential oil of Matricaria chamomilla L. Iran J Med Aroma Plants. 29(2), 373-386.
  40. Zeinali H., Moslehi Yazddeli A., Safaee L., Jaberalansar Z., Akhoondi A., Eskandari Z., 2014. Effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Iran J Med Aroma Plants. 30(4), 511-518.
  41. Dadkhah A., Amini Dehaghi M., Kafi M., 2012. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile. Iran J Field Crop Res. 10(2), 321-326.
  42. Rahmati M., Azizi M., Hasanzadeh Khayyat L., Nemati H., 2009. Effects of plant density and nitrogen on morphological traits, yield, essential oil and chamazulene contrent of chamomile. J Hort Sci. 23, 27-35.
  43. Zeinali H., Poorjafa M., Bagheri M., Golparvar M.R., Shiranirad A., 2008. Effects of planting time and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of chamomile. Iran J Agron. 3(10), 220-230.
  44. Jadwiga Andrzejewska J., Woropaj-Janczak M., 2014. German chamomile performance after stubble catch crops and response to nitrogen fertilization. Ind Crop Prod. 62: 350-358.
  45. Ratti N., Kumar S., Verma H.N., Gautam, S.P., 2001. Improvement in bioavailability of tricalcium phosphate to Cymbopogon martini var. motia by rhizobacteria, AMF and Azospirillum inoculation. Microb Res. 156, 145-149.
  46. Sharma, A.K., 2002. Biofertilizers for sustainable agriculture. Agrobios, India, 407 p.
  47. Arguello J.A., Ledesma A., Nunez S.B., Rodriguez C.H., Goldfarb, M.D.D., 2006. Vermicompost effects on bulbing dynamics, nonstructural carbohydrate content, yield, and quality of Rosado paraguayo garlic bulbs. Hort Sci. 41(3), 589-592.
  48. Chand S., Pande P., Prasad A., Anwar M., Patra. D.D., 2007. Influence of Integrated supply of Vermicompost and Zinc-enriched Compost with two grade levels of iron and zinc on the productivity of Geranium. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 38, 2581-2599.
  49. Darzi M.T., Ghalavand A., Sefidkon F., Rejali, F., 2008. Effects of vermicompost and biophosphate fertilizer on quantity and quality of essential oil of fennel. Iran J Med Aroma Plants. 4(24), 396-413.
  50. Fallahi J., Koocheki A., Moghaddam P., 2009. Study the effects of biofertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of chamomile. Iran J Agron. 7(1), 127-135.
  51. Sanches Govin E., Rodrigues Gonzales H., Carballo Guerra C., Milanés Figueredo, M., 2005. Influencia de los abonos organicos y biofertilizantes en la calidad de las especies medicinales Calendula officinalis l.y Matricaria recutita L. Revista Cubana Plant Med. 10(1), 1-8.
  52. Senthilkumar S., Sriramachandrasekharan M.V., Haripriya K., 2004. Effect of vermicompost and fertilizer on the growth and yield of rose. J Interacademicia. 8, 207-210.
  53. Haj Seyed Hadi M.R., Darzi M.T., Riazi G.H., Ghandehari Z., 2011. Effects of vermicompost and amino acids on the flower yield and essential oil production from Matricaria chamomile L. J Med Plants Res. 5(23), 5611-5617.