Immobilization of Cadmium in a Cd-Spiked Soil by Different Kinds of Amendments


1 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


   Chemical stabilization of heavy metals is one of the soil remediation methods based on the application amendments to reduce mobility of heavy metals. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of different kinds of amendments on cadmium (Cd) stabilization in a Cd-spiked soil. The amendments were municipal solid waste compost (MSWC), Coal fly ash (CFA), rice husk biochars prepared at 300°C (B300) and 600°C (B600), zero valent iron (Fe0) and zero valent manganese (Mn0). The Cd-spiked soils were separately incubated with selected amendments at the rates of 2 and 5% (W/W) for 90 days at 25 °C. Soil samples were extracted by EDTA for periods of 5 to 975min. In addition, sequential extraction was used as a suitable method for identification of chemical forms of Cd and their plant availability. The addition of amendments to soil had significant effects on desorption and chemical forms of Cd. Changes in Cd fractions and their conversion into less soluble forms were clear in all treated soils. The addition of amendments resulted in a signiï‌cant reduction in mobility factor of Cd compared to the control treatment. Among all amendments tested, Fe0 was the most effective treatment in decreasing dynamic of Cd. Biphasic pattern of Cd desorption kinetic was fitted well by the model of two ï‌rst-order reactions. In general, from the practical point of view, Fe0, MSWC and Mn0 treatments are effective in Cd immobilization, while application of  Fe0 at 5% (W/W) was the best treatment for stabilization of Cd. 


  1. Alloway B.J., 2013. Heavy Metals and Metalloids as Micronutrients for Plants and Animals.In Heavy Metals in Soils.Springer Netherlands. pp. 195-209.
  2. Loganathan P., Vigneswaran S., Kandasamy J., 2013. Road-Deposited Sediment Pollutants: A Critical Review of their Characteristics, Source Apportionment, and Management. Critical Reviews in: Environ Sci Techno. 43(13), 1315-1348.
  3. Terzano R., Spagnuolo M., Medici L., Vekemans B., Vincze L., Janssens K., Ruggiero P., 2005. Copper stabilization by zeolite synthesis in polluted soils treated with coal fly ash. Environ Sci Technol. 39, 6280ââ‚‌“6287.
  4. Hamon R.E., McLaughlin M.J., Cozens G., 2002. Mechanisms of attenuation of metal availability in in situ remediation treatments. Environ Sci Techno. 36, 3991-3996.
  5. Basta N.T., Gradwohl R., Snethen K.L., Schroder J.L., 2001. Chemical immobilization of lead, zinc, and cadmium in smelter-contaminated soils using biosolids and rock phosphate. J Environ Qual. 30(4), 1222-1230.
  6. Chen H.M., Zheng C.R., Tu C., Shen Z.G., 2000. Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals. Chemosphere. 41(1-2), 229-234.
  7. Krebs R., Gupta K.S., Furrer G., Schulin R., 1998. Solubility and plant uptake of metals with and with- out liming of sludge-amended soils. J Environ Qual. 27, 18ââ‚‌“23.
  8. Esfandbod M., 2010. Kinetics of cadmium desorption from some soils of Iran. In 19th World Congress of Soil
  9. Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World, Australia, Brisbane.
  10. SadeghKasmaei L., Fekri M., 2014. Pollution and Desorption Kinetics of Heavy Metals at Agricultural Soils in the Southeast of Iran. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 45(11), 1435-1445.
  11. Bouyoucos G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agron J. 54, 464ââ‚‌“465.Chapman, H.D., 1965.Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA, Evans DD, Ensminger LE, White JL, Clark FE, editors. Methods of soil analysis part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Monogr. 9. 2nd ed. Madison (WI): Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America; p. 891ââ‚‌“901.
  12. Chapman H.D., 1965. Cation exchange capacity. In: Black C.A., Evans D.D., Ensminger L.E., White J.L., Clark F.E., editors. Methods of soil analysis part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Monogr. 9. 2nd ed. Madison (WI): Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America; p. 891ââ‚‌“901.
  13. Jackson M.L., 1958. Soil chemical analysis. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall.
  14. Allison L.E., Moodie C.D., 1965. Carbonate. In: Black C.A., Evans D.D., Ensminger L.E., White J.L., Clark F.E., editors. Methods of soil analysis part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties.Monogr. 9. 2nd ed. Madison (WI): Agronomy Society of America and Soil Science Society of America; p. 1379ââ‚‌“1396.
  15. Lindsay W.L., Norvell W.A., 1978. Development of a DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil SciSoc Am J. 42, 421ââ‚‌“428.
  16. Sposito G., Lund L., Chang A., 1983. Trace metal chemistry in arid-zone field soils amended with sewage sludge: I. fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in solid phases. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 46, 260ââ‚‌“264.
  17. Singh J.P., Karwasra S.P.S., Singh M., 1988. Distribution and forms of copper, iron, manganese, and zinc in calcareous soils of India. Soil Sci. 146(5), 359-366.
  18. Salbu B., Krekling T., 1998. Characterisation of radioactive particles in the environment. Analyst, 123(5), 843-850.
  19. Jalali M., SajadiTabar S., 2013. Kinetic extractions of nickel and lead from some contaminated calcareous soils. Soil Sediment Contam. 22(1), 56-71.
  20. Santos S., Costa C.A., Duarte A.C., Scherer H.W., Schneider R.J., Esteves V.I., Santos E.B., 2010. Influence of different organic amendments on the potential availability of metals from soil: A study on metal fractionation and extraction kinetics by EDTA. Chemosphere. 78(4), 389-396.
  21. Rajaei M., Karimian N., Maftoun M., Yasrebi J., Assad M.T., 2006. Chemical forms of cadmium in two calcareous soil textural classes as affected by application of cadmium-enriched compost and incubation time.Geoderma. 136, 533-541.
  22. Khanmirzaei A., Bazargan K., Amir Moezzi A., Richards B.K., Shahbazi K., 2013. Single and sequential extraction of cadmium in some highly calcareous soils of Southwestern Iran. J soil sci plant nutr. 13(1), 153-164.
  23. Houben D., Pircar J., Sonnet P., 2012. Heavy metal immobilization by cost-effective amendments in a contaminated soil: effects on metal leaching and phytoavailability. J GeochemExplor. 123, 87-94.
  24. Naidu R., Bolan N.S., Kookana R.S., Tiller K.G., 1994. Ionicââ‚‌strength and pH effects on the sorption of cadmium and the surface charge of soils.Eur J Soil Sci. 45(4), 419-429.
  25. Watanabe T., Murata Y., Nakamura T., Sakai Y., Osaki M., 2009. Effect of zero-valent iron application on cadmium uptake in rice plants grown in cadmium-contaminated soils.J Plant Nutr. 32(7), 1164-1172.
  26. Aboulroos S.A., Helal M.I.D., Kamel M.M., 2006. Remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils using in situ immobilization and phytoextraction techniques. Soil Sediment Contam. 15(2), 199-215.
  27. Jiang J., Xu R.K., Jiang T.Y., Li Z., 2012. Immobilization of Cu (II), Pb (II) and Cd (II) by the addition of rice straw derived biochar to a simulated polluted Ultisol.J Hazard Mater. 229, 145-150.
  28. Lee S.H., Lee J.S., Jeong Choi Y., Kim J.G. 2009. In situ stabilization of cadmium-, lead-, and zinc-contaminated soil using various amendments. Chemosphere, 77(8), 1069-1075.
  29. Vaca-Paulin R., Esteller-Alberich M.V., Lugo-De La Fuente J., Zavaleta-Mancera H.A., 2006. Effect of sewage sludge or compost on the sorption and distribution of copper and cadmium in soil. Waste Manag. 26(1), 71-81.
  30. Knox A.S., Adriano D.C., 2002. Evaluation of Sequestering Agents for Cadmium Contaminated Soils. Environmental Science and Technology. Uzouchukwu G.A., Schimnel K., Reddy G.B., Chang S., Kabadi V. (Eds). Battelle Press, Richland. 205-213.
  31. Houben D., Sonnet P., 2010. Leaching and phytoavailability of zinc and cadmium in a contaminated soil treated with zero-valent iron. In Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of soil science, soil solutions for a changing World (pp. 1-6).
  32. Kirpichtchikova T.A., Manceau A., Spadini L., Panfili F., Marcus M.A., Jacquet T., 2006. Speciation and solubility of heavy metals in contaminated soil using X-ray microfluorescence, EXAFS spectroscopy, chemical extraction, and thermodynamic modeling. Geochim Cosmochim Ac. 70(9), 2163-2190.
  33. Mayel S., Ghasemi-Fasaei R., Karimian N., Ronaghi A., Zarei M., Jarrah M., 2014. Desorption behaviour of lead in two calcareous soils as affected by Pb level without and with compost supply. Arch Agron Soil Scie. 60(2), 265-274.
  34. Friesl W., Horak O., Wenzel W.W., 2004. Immobilization of heavy metals in soils by the application of bauxite residues: pot experiments under field conditions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci. 167(1), 54-59.
  35. Shuman L.M., Dudka S., Das K., 2002. Cadmium forms and plant availability in compost-amended soil.Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal. 33(5-6), 737-748.
  36. Brunori C., Cremisini C., Dââ‚‌™annibale L., Massanisso P., Pinto V., 2005. A kinetic study of trace element leach ability from abandoned-mine-polluted soil treated with SS-MSW compost and red mud. Comparison with results from sequential extraction. Anal Bio anal Chem. 381(7), 1347-1354.