Toxicity Properties of Silver Nanoparticles on Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Histological Changes of Heart and Embryo Tissues in Pregnant Mice (NMRI)


1 Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

2 Department of Developmental Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr, Iran

3 Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr Branch, Qaemshahr,Iran


The rapid advancement of nanotechnology enables us to use nanoscale particles. This material in terms of physical, chemical and biological characteristics are unique compared to larger particles. Increased cell division, apoptosis, oxidative stress has been associated with toxic effects of nano-silver. The aim of this study was to evaluate histipotological changes and enzyme activity in nanoparticle silver trated pregnant NMRI mice. These experimental were performed on 35 NMRI mice used for treatment with Ag Nps. The average weight of the animals was 30 ± 3 g that divided into five groups of seven were injected intraperitoneally. After mentioned treatment, the blood sampling was done of NMRI. The collected tissues were washed with saline and fixed in Boin΄s fluid and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology evaluation. After data collection, statistical analysis was done using SAS software. Histological observations showed that the silver nanoparticles had a major effect on fetal development in each experimental groups compared to the control group. No change of histological characteristics of heart tissues was observed in Ag-nps groups as compared to the control group. Different concentrations of silver nanoparticles increased levels of enzyme lactate dehydrogenase , but no significant differences were observed between control and treated groups (P<0.05). Toxicity of silver nanoparticles injected intraperitoneally into the experimental groups were evaluated which had unfavorable effects on embryonic development. So, further investigates are suggested to predict AgNPs toxicity.


  1. Mytych J., Wnuk M., 2013. Nanoparticle Technology as a Double-Edged Sword: Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Epigenetic Effects on Living Cells. J Biomate Nanobiotechnol. 4: 53-63.
  2. Ferreira A.J., Cemlyn-Jones J., Robalo Cordeiro C., 2013. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology. Rev Port Pneumol. 19(1): 28-37.
  3. Bhattacharya R., Mukherjee P., 2008. Biological properties of nakedââ‚‌metal nanoparticles. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 60: 1289ââ‚‌“1306.
  4. Nowack B., Krug H. F., Height M., 2010.120 years of nanosilver history: Implications for policy makers. Environ Sci Technol. 45, 1177ââ‚‌“1183.
  5. lansdown A.B.G., 2004. A review of the use of silver in wound care: facts and fallacies. Br J Nurs. 13: 6-19.
  6. Wright J.B., Lam K., Hansen D., Burrell R.E., 1999. Efficacy of topical silver against fungal burn wound pathogens. Am J Infect Control. 27: 344ââ‚‌“350.
  7. Sun R.W.Y., Chen R., Chung N.P.Y., Ho C.M., Lin C.L.S., Che C.M., 2005. Silver nanoparticles fabricated in hepes buffer exhibit cytoprotective activities toward HIV-1 infected cells. Chem Communications. 5059ââ‚‌“5061.
  8. Johnston H.J., Hutchison G., Christensen F.M., Peters S., Hankin S., Stone V., 2010. A review the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of silver and gold particulates: Particle attributes and biologimechanisms responsible for the observed toxicity. Critical Rev Toxicol. 4: 328ââ‚‌“346.
  9. Lankveld D.P.K., Oomen A.G., Krystek P., Neigh A., Troost-de Jong A., Noorlander C.W., van Eijkeren J.C.H., Geertsma R.E., de Jong W.H., 2010. The kinetics of the tissue distribution of silver nanoparticles of different sizes. Biomaterials. 31: 8350ââ‚‌“8361.
  10. Sharma V. K., Yngard R.A., Lin Y., 2006. Silver Nanoparticles: Green Synthesis and Their Antimicrobial Activities. J Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 145(1-2): 83-96.
  11. Tang J., Xi T., 2008. Status of biological evaluation on silver nanoparticles. Sheng. Wu. Yi. Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 25(4): 958-61.
  12. Akradi L., SohrabiHaghdoost I., Djeddi A.N., 2012. Histopathologic and apoptotic effect of nanosilver in liver of broiler chickens. Afr J Biotechnol. 11(22): 6207-6211.
  13. Nori A., Parivar K., Modaresi M., Yousefi M.H., 2010. Effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on the growth and development of mice embryo. The National Conference of nano-materials and nano-technology, Najaf Abad, Islamic Azad University (Persian).
  14. Negahdary M., Ajdary M., 2014. The Toxicity of Gold, Silver and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on LDH Enzyme in Male Mice. Ann Res Rev Biol. 4(8): 1346-1352.
  15. Moss D.W., Henderson R., 1999. Clinical enzymology. In: Burtis CAââ‚‌Å¡ Ashwood ER. Eds. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry 3rd ed Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. 617-712.
  16. Warheit D.B., Webb T.R., Reed K.L., Frerichs S., Sayes C.M. 2007. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with tree forms of ultra-fine titanium dioxide particles. Toxicol. 230(1): 90-104.
  17. Kannan R.R., Jerley A.J.A., Ranjani M., Prakash V.S.J., 2001. Antimicrobial silver nanoparticle induces organ deformities in the developing Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. J Biomed Sci Engin. 4: 248-254.
  18. Ghorbanzadeh V., Moshtaghian J., Ebadi A.H., 2011. Influence of Nano-Silver on Graffian Follicles via Intraperitoneal Injection in Rats. Middle-East. J Sci Res. 8(1): 228-230.
  19. Naghsh N., Mashayekh A., Khodadadi S., 2012. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats. JFUMS. 2(4): 303-307 (Persian).
  20. Jebali A., Kazemi B., Rafitabar H., Hekmati-moghaddam S.H., 2012. The cytotoxicity effects of different nanoparticles on Balb/c mice cells, Nanocon, Brno, Czech Republic, EU, 23 - 25. 10.2012.
  21. Chen W., Liu Y., Courtney H.S., Bettenga M., Agrawal C.M., Bumgardner, J.D., 2006. In vitro anti-bacterial and biological properties of magnetron co-sputtered silver-containing hydroxyapatitei coating. Biomaterials. 27(32): 5512-7.
  22. Kawata K., Osawa M., Okabe S., 2009. In Vitro Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at Noncytotoxic Doses to HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells. Environ Sci Technol. 43(15): 6046ââ‚‌“6051.
  23. Zhang T., Wang L., Chen Q., Chen C., 2014. Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles. Yonsei Med J 55(2): 283ââ‚‌“291
  24. Qu Y., Li W., Zhou Y., Liu X., Zhang L., Wang L., 2011. Full assessment of fate and physiological behavior of quantum dots utilizing Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Nano Letters. 11: 3174ââ‚‌“3183.
  25. Li Y.F., Chen C., 2011. Fate and toxicity of metallic and metal-containing nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Small. 7, 2965ââ‚‌“2980.