The Effects of Ribose on Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films



Native fish gelatin has some disadvantages such as high hydrophilic, and solubility in cold water. Mixing with other biopolymers and crosslinking by sugars may improve functional properties of fish gelatin. So in this research, the effects of ribose were investigated on moisture sorption isotherm, solubility in water, and mechanical properties of cold water fish gelatin (CWFG) films. Ribose sugar was incorporated into CWFG solutions at different concentrations (e.g. 0, 2, 4, and 6% w/w dried gelatin). Physicochemical properties such as water solubility, moisture sorption isotherm and mechanical properties of the films were measured according to ASTM standards. Results showed that incorporation of ribose sugar significantly improved functional properties of CWFG films. Solubility, moisture content and monolayer water content of the matrixes were decreased by increasing the ribose contents. Mechanical properties of biocomposites were improved more than 20% and moisture sorption isotherm curve significantly shifted to lower moisture contents. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for packaging purposes.


  1. Ehivet F.E., Min B., Park M.K., Oh J.H., 2011. Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Sweetpotato Starch-Based Edible Film Containing Origanum (Thymus capitatus) Oil. Journal of Food Science. 76(1): C178-C184.
  2. Nouri L., Mohammadi Nafchi A., 2014. Antibacterial, mechanical and barrier properties of sago starch film incorporated with betel leaves extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 66 (0): 254-259.
  3. Davis G., Song J.H., 2006. Biodegradable packaging based on raw materials from crops and their impact on waste management. Industrial Crops and Products. 23 (2): 147-161.
  4. Sorrentino A., Gorrasi G., Vittoria V., 2007. Potential perspectives of bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 18 (2): 84-95.
  5. Mohammadi Nafchi A., Robal M., Cheng L.H., Tajul A.Y., Karim A.A., 2012. Physicochemical, thermal, and rheological properties of acid-hydrolyzed sago (Metroxylon sagu) starch. LWT - Food Science and Technology. 46 (1): 135-141.
  6. Mohammadi Nafchi A.M., Nassiri R., Sheibani S., Ariffin F., Karim A.A., 2013. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films filled with nanorod-rich zinc oxide. Carbohydrate Polymers. 96(1): 233-239.
  7. Dias A.B., Müller C.M.O., Larotonda F.D.S., Laurindo J.B., 2010. Biodegradable films based on rice starch and rice flour. Journal of Cereal Science. 51(2): 213-219.
  8. Chandra R., Rustgi R., 1998. Biodegradable polymers. Progress in Polymer Science. 23(7): 1273-1335.
  9. Voon H., Bhat R., Easa A., Liong M.T., Karim A.A., 2012. Effect of Addition of Halloysite Nanoclay and SiO2 Nanoparticles on Barrier and Mechanical Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films. Food and Bioprocess Technology. 5(5): 1766-1774.
  10. Wattanachant S., Muhammad K., Mat Hashim D., Rahman R.A., 2003. Effect of crosslinking reagents and hydroxypropylation levels on dual-modified sago starch properties. Food Chemistry. 80(4): 463-471.
  11. Leuenberger B.H., 1991. Investigation of viscosity and gelation properties of different mammalian and fish gelatins. Food Hydrocolloids. 5(4): 353-361.
  12. Mohammadi Nafchi A., Cheng L.H., Karim A.A., 2011. Effects of plasticizers on thermal properties and heat sealability of sago starch films. Food Hydrocolloids. 25(1): 56-60.
  13. Bertuzzi M.A., Castro Vidaurre E.F., Armada M., Gottifredi J.C., 2007. Water vapor permeability of edible starch based films. Journal of Food Engineering. 80(3): 972-978.
  14. Van Den Berg C., In Engineering and foods, ed. B. M. McKenna, Elsevier, New York, 1984, vol. 1, Pp. 311-321.
  15. Masclaux C., Gouanvé F., Espuche E., 2010. Experimental and modelling studies of transport in starch nanocomposite films as affected by relative humidity. Journal of Membrane Science. 363(1-2): 221-231.
  16. Torabi Z., Mohammadi Nafchi A., 2013. The Effects of SiO2 Nanoparticles on Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Potato Starch Films. The Journal of Chemical Health Risks. 3(1): 33-42.
  17. ASTM, in Annual book of ASTM standards, Philadelphia, PA, 2010.
  18. Mohammadi Nafchi A., Tabatabaei R.H., Pashania B., Rajabi H.Z., Karim A.A., 2013. Effects of ascorbic acid and sugars on solubility, thermal, and mechanical properties of egg white protein gels. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 62 (0): 397-404.
  19. Godbillot L., Dole P., Joly C., Rogé B., Mathlouthi M., 2006. Analysis of water binding in starch plasticized films. Food Chemistry. 96(3): 380-386.
  20. Lourdin D., Coignard L., Bizot H., Colonna P., 1997. Influence of equilibrium relative humidity and plasticizer concentration on the water content and glass transition of starch materials. Polymer. 38(21): 5401-5406.
  21. Pavlath A., Orts W., 2009. Edible Films and Coatings: Why, What, and How? In: K.C. Huber and M. E. Embuscado (eds.) Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications, Pp. 1-23: Springer New York.
  22. Mohammadi Nafchi A., Moradpour M., Saeidi M., Alias A.K., 2013. Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects. Starch - Stärke. 65(1-2), 61-72.
  23. Galietta G., Di Gioia L., Guilbert S., Cuq B., 1998. Mechanical and Thermomechanical Properties of Films Based on Whey Proteins as Affected by Plasticizer and Crosslinking Agents. Journal of Dairy Science. 81(12): 3123-3130.
  24. Blahovec J., 2004. Sorption isotherms in materials of biological origin mathematical and physical approach. Journal of Food Engineering. 65(4): 489-495.
  25. Zeppa C., Gouanvé F., Espuche E., 2009. Effect of a plasticizer on the structure of biodegradable starch/clay nanocomposites: Thermal, water-sorption, and oxygen-barrier properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 112(4): 2044-2056.
  26. Müller C.M.O., Laurindo J.B., Yamashita F., 2011. Effect of nanoclay incorporation method on mechanical and water vapor barrier properties of starch-based films. Industrial Crops and Products. 33(3): 605-610.
  27. Mohammadi Nafchi A, Alias A.K., Mahmud S., Robal M., 2012. Antimicrobial, rheological, and physicochemical properties of sago starch films filled with nanorod-rich zinc oxide. Journal of Food Engineering. 113(4): 511-519.