Survey of Mycotoxins in Wheat from Iran by HPLC Using Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup

Authors

Abstract

Mycotoxins are small, toxic chemical products produced as secondary metabolites by a few fungal spices that readily colonise crops and contaminate them with toxins in the field or after harvest. In this study a liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (AFs) (B1, B2, G1, and G2), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone(ZEA) toxins in wheat. For this purpose, a total of 231 wheat samples were analyzed. Mycotoxins were extracted and purified from the samples using immunoaffinity (IAC) columns. 2.67% and 2.21% of examined wheat samples contained AFB1and OTA. The method was based on the extraction of AFs, OTA and ZEA finely ground wheat sample with 80% methanol and 60% acetonitrile solution, respectively. 2.60% and 2.16% of examined wheat samples contained AFB1 and OTA. LOD was 0.27, 0.04, 0.23, 0.04, 1.18 and 21.56 for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA and ZEA, respectively.Considering these results, these special products should not be a health concern for these collectives; however, special attention needs on foods distribution in retail shops.

Keywords


  1. Kuiper-Goodman T., 1995. Mycotoxins: risk assessment and legislation. Toxicology letters. 82ââ‚‌“83(7), 853ââ‚‌“859.
  2. IARC., 1993. Some naturally occurring substances: Food items and constituents, heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins. IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 56. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on cancer.
  3. Van Egmond H.P., Paulsch W.E., Sizoo E.A., 1988. Comparison of six methods of analysis for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in feeding stuffs containing citrus pulp. Food Additives and Contaminants.5, 321-332.
  4. Varga J., Juhász Á., Kevei F., Kozakiewicz Z., 2004. Molecular diversity of agriculturally important Aspergillus species.Journal of Food Protection. 110, 627ââ‚‌“640.
  5. Trucksess M.W., Weaver C.M., Oles C.J., Fry J.S., Noonan G.O., Betz J.M., Rader J.I., 2008. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 and ochratoxin an in ginseng and ginger by multitoxinimmunoaffinity column cleanup and liquid chromatographic quantitation: collaborative study. Journal of AOAC Internationasl. 91(3), 511ââ‚‌“523.
  6. Creppy E.E., 2002. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe.Toxicology Letters. 127, 19ââ‚‌“28.
  7. Codex Alimentarius Commission., 2001. Joint FAO/WHO food standards programme, codex committee on food additcontamin. (Thirty-third sessions CODEX). Netherlands: Hague.
  8. Lee N. A., Wang S., Allan R.D., KennedyI.R., 2004. A rapid aflatoxin B1 ELISA: development and validation with reduced matrix effects for peanuts. Corn, pistachio and soybeans. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52, 2746ââ‚‌“2755.
  9. European Commission (EC), 2006. Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/ 2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.Offical Journal of the European Union, L 364, 5-24.
  10. Goryacheva I.Y., De Saeger S., Lobeau M., Eremin, S.A., Barna-Vetro, I., Van, P.C., 2006. Approach for ochratoxin a fast screening in spices using clean-up tandem immunoassay columns with confirmation by high performance liquid chromatographyââ‚‌“tandem mass spectrometry (HPLCââ‚‌“MS/MS). AnalyticaChimicaActa. 577, 38ââ‚‌“45.
  11. Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, 2002. Food and Feed. Mycotoxins-Maximum tolerated level. (1st ed.). ISIRI No. 5925.
  12. Feizy J., Beheshti H.R., FakoorJanati S.S., Khoshbakht Fahim N., Davari G., 2011. A study on the occurance of Ochratoxinin A in rice from Iran using immunoaffinity column cleanup and HPLC with fluorescence detection.Food Additives and Contaminants. 4(1), 67-70.
  13. Applebaum R.S., Brackett R.E., Wiseman D.W., Marth E.H., 1982. Aflatoxins: toxicity to dairy cattle and occurance in milk and milk products. Journal of Food Protection. 45, 752-777.
  14. Jay J.M., 1992. Modern food microbiology. (4th ed.). New York: Champman & Hall, (p. 1-70).