Assessment of Groundwater Chemical Quality, Using Inverse Distance Weighted Method

Authors

Abstract

An interpolation technique, ordinary Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW), was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters in Damghan plain of Iran. According to Scofield guidelines for TDS   value, 60% of the water samples were harmful for irrigation purposes. Regarding to EC parameter, more than 60% of studied area was laid in bad range for irrigation purposes. The most dominant anion was Cl- and 10% of water samples showed a very hazardous class. According to  Doneen  guidelines for  chloride value, 100%  of  collected  water  from the  aquifer  had  slight to moderate problems  for  irrigation water purposes. The predominant cations in Damghan plain aquifer were according to Na+> Ca++> Mg++> K+. Sodium ion was the dominant cation and regarding to Na+ content guidelines, almost all groundwater samples had problem for foliar application. Calcium ion distribution was within usual range. The magnesium ion concentration is generally lower than sodium and calcium. The majority of the samples showed   Mg++amount within usual range. Also K+ value ranged from 0.1 to 0.23 meq/L and all the water samples had potassium values within the permissible limit. Based on SAR criterion 80 % of collected water had slight to moderate problems. The SSP values were found from 2.87 to 6.87%. According to SAR value, thirty percent of ground water samples were doubtful class. The estimated amounts of RSC were ranged from 0.4-2 and based on RSC criterion, twenty percent of groundwater samples had slight to moderate problems

Keywords


  1. Lloyd J.W., Heathcoat J., 1985. A Natural inorganic hydrochemistry in relation to groundwater, Claredon Press, Oxford.
  2. Sargaonkar A., Deshpande V., 2003.Development of an overall index of pollution forsurfacewater based on a general classification scheme in Indian context. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. (89): 43-67.
  3. Khan F., Husain T., LumbA., 2003.Water quality evaluation and trend analysis in selected watersheds of the Atlantic Region of Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. (88): 221-242.
  4. AshrafSh., Afshari H., Ebadi A.G., 2011.Geographical Information System Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality. American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 6 (2): 261-266.
  5. AshrafSh., Afshari H., Ebadi A.G., 2011, Application of GIS for determination of groundwater quality suitable in crops influenced by irrigation water in the Damghan region of Iran.International Journal of the Physical Sciences.Vol. 6(4), pp. 843-854.
  6. Clesceri L.S., Greenberg A.E., Trussell R.R., 1989. Standard Methods for the examination of Water and Waste Water. 17th Edn., American Public Health Association, Washington DC., USA. pp: 1-175.
  7. Asadi S.S., Vuppala P. M., Reddy A., 2007.Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (Zone-V), India. International Journal of Environmental Resourses. American Public HealthAssociation. 4(1): 45-52.
  8. Richards L.A., 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline Alkali Soils. Agricultural Handbook 60, USDA and IBH Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi,India,. pp: 98-99.
  9. Subramani T., Elango L., Damodarasamy S.R., 2005.Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use Chithar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environental Geology. (47): 1099-1110.
  10. Kumar M., Kumari K., Ramanathan A.L., Saxena R., 2007.A comparative evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in two intensively cultivated districts of Punjab, India. Environental Geology. (5): 553-574.
  11. Schofield R. K., 1935. The pF of the water in soil.International Congress of Soil Sciences. pp: 38-48.
  12. Doneen .L.D., 1954.Salinization of soils by salts in irrigation water .American Geophysics Union.(35).943-950.
  13. Ayers R.S., Westcot D.W., 1985. Water quality for agriculture: University of California-Davis, California, USA, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, © FAO
  14. JamesD.,HankR. Jurinak J. 1982. Modern Irrigated Soils. John Wiley and Sons. New York. 235 pp.