The Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Iron and Manganese Concentration of Berssem Clover by Cadmium Stress

Authors

Abstract

In this study, a factorial experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD) with three factors: arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi with two levels (inoculated and non-inoculated soil) and cadmium with six levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm). The results showed that effect of cadmium levels on iron and manganese concentration was significant in one percent level of statistical.  In80 ppm cadmium concentration in soil, a reducediron were  on  concentration of Iron (39% and 53%) and manganese (48% and 48.5%) in root and aerial respectively. Butarbuscularmycorrhiza fungi increasediron concentration 30.2% and 26.7% in theroot and aerial, and manganese concentration36% and 30.9% in root and aerial plant respectively.

Keywords


  1. Aydinalp C., 2010. The status of some selected heavy metals in roadside soils of Bursa province, Turkey, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 9, 559-563.
  2. Yang Y., Jin Z., Bi X., Li F., Sun L., Liu J., Fu Z. 2009. Atmospheric depositioncarriedPb, Zn, and Cd from a zinc smelter and their effect on soil microorganisms.Pedosphere 4, 422ââ‚‌“433.
  3. Xiao Y., 2000. Status of heavy metal contamination to the soil in China.Metal World 2, 10 (in Chinese).
  4. Adewole M.B, Awotoye O.O, Ohiembor M.O., Salami A.O., 2010. Influence of mycorrhizal fungi on phytoremediating potential and yield of sunflower in cd and pb polluted soils. Journal of Agricultural Sciences vol. 55, NO. 1, 17-28.
  5. Farmer A. A., Farmer A. M., 2000. AM Concentration of cadmium, lead and zinc in livestock feed and organs around a metal production center in eastern Kazakhstan. Science of the Total Environment. 257:53-60.
  6. Kabata-pendias A., pendias H., 2001. Trace elements in soils and plants. crc press, bocaraton, fl (3rd edition), pp 413.
  7. Ciecko Z.,Kalembasa S.,Wyszkowski M.,Rolka E., 2004. Effect of Soil Contamination by Cadmium on Potassium Uptake by Plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies Vol. 13, No. 3, 333-337.
  8. Mceldowney S., Hardman D.J., Waite S., 1993. Treatment Technologies. In McEldowney, S., Hardman, J., Waite, S. (Eds.).Pollution Ecology and Biotreatment Technologies.Longman, Singapore Publishers, Singapore.
  9. Mench M.J., Didier V.L., Loer M., Gomez A., Masson P., 1994. A mimicked in situ remediation study of metal contaminated soils with emphasis on cadmium and lead.Journal of Environmental Quality. 23, 58-63.
  10. Wills B., 1988. Mineral Processing Technology.fourth ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
  11. Miransari M., 2010. Contribution of arbuscularmycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under different types of soil stress.Plant Biology.12:563- 569.
  12. Giovannetti M., 2008. Structure, exten and functional significance of belowground arbuscularmycorrhizal networks. In: Varma, A. (Ed.) Mycorrhiza: State of the Art, Genetics and Molecular Biology, Eco-Function, Biotechnology, Eco-Physiology, Structure and Systematics. Third edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 59-72.
  13. Atimanav G, Adholeya A., 2002. AM noculations of five tropical fodder crops and inoculum production in marginal soil amended with organic matter. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 35: 214-218.
  14. Allen M.F., SwensonW., QuerejetaJ.I., Egerton-WarburtonL.M., TresederK.K., 2003. Ecology of mycorrhizae: A conceptual framework for complex interactions among plants and fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology 41:271ââ‚‌“303.
  15. Srivastava D., KapoorR., SrivastavaS.K., MukerjiK.J., 1996. Mycorrhizal researchââ‚‌” a priority in agriculture. pp. 41-75. In: K.G. Mukerji (ed.), Concepts in Mycorrhizal Research. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  16. Ghazala N., 2005. Role of symbiotic soil fungi in controlling roadside erosion and in the establishment of plant communities.
  17. Del ValC., Barea J.M., Azcon-Aguilar C., 1999. Assessing the tolerance of heavy metals of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi isolated from sewage-sludge contaminated soils. Applied Soil Ecology 11: 261-269.
  18. Jamal A., Ayub N., Usman M., Khan A.G., 2002. Arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi enhance zinc and nickel uptake from contaminated soil by soya bean and lentil. International.Journal of Phytoremediation. 4:205-221.
  19. Audet P., Charest C., 2007. Dynamics of arbuscularmycorrhizalsymbiosis in heavy metal phytoremediation: meta-analyticaland conceptual perspectives. Environmental Pollution147:609-614.
  20. Sieverding E., 1991. Vesicular-arbuscularmycorrhiza management in tropical agrosystems. Technical Cooperation, Federal Repuplic of Germany Eschborn. ISBN 3-88085-462.