Extraction and Determination of Pb(II) by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample


1 Department of Chemistry, Varamin( Pishva )Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

2 Department of Biological Sciences, Varamin( Pishva )Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran


A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solid-phase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II) on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH). The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH) base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ) for Pb(II) was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples.


Luoma S.N., 1983. Sci. Total Environ., 28
Hummers W., Offeman R., 1985. Preparation of
graphitic oxide. J Am Chem
Soc 1958;80:1339.
Kirk R.E., Othmer D.F., Ecyclopedia of Chemical
Technology, Vol. 14, 3rd Ed., John wiley and sons,
New York, 1979.
Parmeggiani L., Encyclopedia of Occupational
Health and Safety, Vol. 1, 3rd., International Labor
Organization, Geneva, 1983.
Choi Y.S., Choi H.S., 2003. Bull. Korean Chem.
Soc., 24, 2003. 222.
Zaijan L., Yuling Y., Jian T., Jiaomai P., Talanta,
, 2003. 123.
Kara D., Alkan M., Cakir U., Turk J.. Chem. 25,
Sonawale S.B., Ghalsasi Y.V., Argekar A.P.,
Anal. Sci., 17, 2001. 285.
Bourlinos A. B., Georgakilas V., Zboril R., T. A.
Steriotis, Stubos A., Small, 2009. 5, 1841ââ‚‌“1845.
Manzoori J.L., Bavili-Tabrizi A., Microchem J.
,72, 2002. 1.
Chen J., Teo K.C., 2001. Anal. Chim. Acta, 450
Yuan S., Chen W., Hu S., Talanta, 64, 2004. 922.
Majors R.E., LC-GC 4, 1989. 972.
Park S., Ruoff R. S., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2009. 4,
Lemos V.A., Baliza P.X., Yamaki R.T., Rocha
M.E., Alves A.P.O., Talanta, 61, 2003. 675.
Tokman N., Akman S., Ozcan M., Talanta, 59 ,
Ibarra L., Jorda C., Effect of a diazide as
adhesive agent in elastomeric matrix-short
polyamide fibers composite. J Appl Polym Sci, 1993.
Zougagh M., Torres A.G.D., Alonso E.V., Povon
J.M.C., Talanta, 62, 2004. 503.
E. Matoso, L. T. Kubota, S. Cadore, Talanta, 60
(2003) 1105.
Karousis N., Sandanayaka A. S. D., Hasobe T.,
Economopoulos S. P., Sarantopouloua E.,
Tagmatarchis N., Mater J.. Chem., 2011. 21, 109.
Smith M. B., March J., Marchââ‚‌™s advanced
organic chemistry: reactions,mechanisms, and
structure. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2001.
p. 1182ââ‚‌“3.
Mermoux M., Chabre Y., Rousseau A., FTIR
and carbon-13 NMR study of graphite oxide.
Carbon, 1991. 29(3):469ââ‚‌“74.
Cataldo F., Structural analogies and differences
between graphite oxide and C60 and C70 polymeric
oxides (fullerene ozopolymers). Fuller Nanotub Car
N, 2003.11(1):1ââ‚‌“13.
Gunzler H., Gremlich H-U., IR spectroscopy.
Winheim: Wiley-VSH; 2002. p. 223ââ‚‌“7. 25] .H.
effery, Chemical Analysis, 5th ed., John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York, 1991.
Abollino O., Aceto M., Sarzanini C., Mentasti E.,
Anal. Chim. Acta, 411, 2000. 233.
Bingye D., Meirong C., Guozhen F., Bing L., Xv
D., Mingfei P., Shuo W., Journal of Hazardous
Materials 219ââ‚‌“ 220, 2012. 103ââ‚‌“ 110.
Groschner M., Appriou P., Anal. Chim. Acta,
, 1994. 369.
Lewis B L., Landing W.M., Mar. Chem., 40
,1992. 105.
Stankovich S., Piner R. D., Nguyen S. T., Ruoff
R.S., Carbon 44, 2006. 3342ââ‚‌“3347.
Nayebi P., Moghimi A., 2006. Oriental Journal
of Chemistry 22(3)(2006)507.
Moghimi A., 2006. Oriental Journal of
Chemistry 22(3)(2006)527.
3Dilovic I., Rubcic M., Vrdoljak V., Pavelic S.
K., Kralj M., Piantanidab I., Cindrica M., Bioorg
Med Chem., 2008. 16, 518
34. Georgakilas V., Bourlinos A.B., Zboril R., Steriotis
T. A., Dallas P., Stubos A. K., Trapalis C., Organic
functionalisation of graphenes Chem. Commun.,
46, 1766ââ‚‌“1768