The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Nitrogen Concentration of Berseem Clover in Contaminated Soil with Cadmium


Soil Science Department, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran


The effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi on nitrogen concentration of berseem clover were examined in contaminated soil with cadmium. Examined factors included: levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation (Glomus mosseae) (With and without inoculation), and different levels of soil contamination by cadmium (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 The results showed that the effects of cadmium levels and mycorrhiza fungi were significant on nitrogen concentration (P≤ 0.01).  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased nitrogen concentration in the root and aerial plant 30% and 40.3% respectively. Also cadmium in concentration of 80 reduced nitrogen concentration in root and aerial plant 28.3% and 35% respectively.


  1. Aydinalp C., 2010. The status of some selected
  2. heavy metals in roadside soils of Bursa province,
  3. Turkey, Environmental Engineering and
  4. Management Journal, 9, 559-563.
  5. Farmer A., Farmer A., 2000. AM Concentration
  6. of cadmium, lead and zinc in livestock feed and
  7. organs around a metal production center in eastern
  8. Kazakhstan. Science of the Total Environment.
  9. :53_60.
  10. Kabata-pendias A., pendias H., 2001. Trace
  11. elements in soils and plants. crc press, bocaraton,
  12. fl (3rd edition), pp 413.
  13. Ciecko Z., Kalembasa S., Wyszkowski M.,
  14. Rolka E., 2004. Effect of Soil Contamination by
  15. Cadmium on Potassium Uptake by Plants. Polish
  16. Journal of Environmental Studies Vol. 13, No. 3 ,
  17. -337.
  18. Mceldowney S., Hardman D.J., Waite S., 1993.
  19. Treatment Technologies. In McEldowney, S.,
  20. Hardman, J., Waite, S. (Eds.), Pollution Ecology
  21. and Biotreatment Technologies. Longman,
  22. Singapore Publishers, Singapore.
  23. Del Val C., Barea J.M., Azcon-Aguilar C.,
  24. Assessing the tolerance of heavy metals of
  25. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from
  26. sewage-sludge contaminated soils. Applied Soil
  27. Ecology 11: 261-269.
  28. Jamal, A., Ayub, N., Usman, M., Khan, A.G.
  29. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance zinc
  30. and nickel uptake from contaminated soil by soya
  31. bean and lentil. International. Journal of
  32. Phytoremediation 4:205-221.
  33. Miransari M., 2010. Contribution of arbuscular
  34. mycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under
  35. different types of soil stress. Plant Biology.
  36. :563- 569.
  37. Shen H., Peter C., Li X., 2006. Uptake of zinc,
  38. cadmium and phosphorus by arbuscular
  39. mycorrhizal maize (Zea mays L.) from a low
  40. available phosphorus calcareous soil spiked with
  41. zinc and cadmium. Environmental Geochemistry
  42. and Health. 28:111ââ‚‌“119.
  43. Gildon A., Tinker P. B., 1983. Interactions of
  44. vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection and
  45. heavy metals in plants. I. The effects of heavy
  46. metals on the development of vesicularââ‚‌“
  47. arbuscular mycorrhizas. New Phytologist. 95,
  48. ââ‚‌“261.
  49. Heggo A., Angle J. S., Chaney R. L., 1990.
  50. Effects of vesicularar buscular mycorrhizal fungi
  51. on heavy metal uptake by soybeans. Soil Biology
  52. & Biochemistry. 22, 865ââ‚‌“869.
  53. Hetrick B. A. D., Wilson G. W. T., Figge D. A.
  54. H., 1994. The influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis
  55. and fertilizer amendments on establishment of
  56. vegetation in heavy-metal mine spoil.
  57. Environmental Pollution. 86, 171ââ‚‌“179.
  58. Malcova R.,Vosatka M., Gryndler M., 2003.
  59. Effects of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on
  60. lead uptake by Zea mays L. and Agrostis
  61. capillaries L. Applied Soil Ecology 23:55-67.
  62. Wu Q. S., Li G. H., Zou Y.N., 2011. Roles of
  63. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and
  64. nutrient acquisition of peach (prunus persica l.
  65. batsch) seedlings. The Journal of Animal & Plant
  66. Sciences, 21(4): 746-750.
  67. Zandavalli R.B., Dillenburg L.R, Souza P.V.,
  68. Growth responses of Araucaria angustifolia
  69. (Araucariaceae) to inoculation with the
  70. mycorrhizal fungus Glomus clarum. Applied Soil
  71. Ecology, 25: 245ââ‚‌“255.
  72. Khan A. G., 2005. Role of soil microbes in
  73. the rhizospheres of plants growing on trace metal
  74. contaminated soils in phytoremediation. J Trace
  75. Elem Med Biol 18:355ââ‚‌“364.
  76. Ghazala N., 2005. Role of symbiotic soil fungi
  77. in controlling roadside erosion and in the
  78. establishment of plant communities