Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

Authors

1 Associate professor, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan , Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan , Iran

Abstract

Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001)  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001). As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

Keywords


  1. Haghighatpajoh H., Jamshidi R. Identifying and
  2. detergent technology, first printing, Publishing
  3. Mobtakeran, 2006. 15-9.
  4. Rojhan M. Color Atlas of Histology and
  5. practical, first printing, Soroush, 1992. 291-309.
  6. Blanc P.D., Galbo M., Hiatt P., Olson K.R.
  7. Morbidity following acute irritant inhalation in a
  8. population based study. JAMA, 1991. 266, 664-9.
  9. Barrow C.S., Alarie Y., Warrick J.C., Stock
  10. M.F. Comparison of the sensory irritation response
  11. in mice to chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Arch
  12. Environ Health. Mar-Apr, 1977. 32(2), 68-76.
  13. Bagchi K., Puri S. Free radicals and anti
  14. oxidants inhalation and disease, Eastern
  15. Mediterranean Health Journal, 1998.(45) 350-360.
  16. Dence C.W., Douglas W., Pulp Bleaching,
  17. Textile Association of Pulp and Paper
  18. Industry,1996. 65-69.
  19. Das R., Blanc P.D. Chlorine gas exposure and
  20. the lung: a review. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 1993.
  21. (3),439-55.
  22. Florian M., The nature and mechanism of
  23. superoxide production by the electron transport
  24. chain, Journal of Association of Physicians of
  25. India, 2003. 4, 227ââ‚‌“253.
  26. Grime k., Class A. Laundry Bleaches and
  27. Activators, Chemistry and Industry,1990. 647- 49.
  28. Gapany-Gapanavicius M., Yellin A., Almog
  29. S., Tirosh M., Pneumomediastinum. A
  30. complication of chlorine exposure from mixing
  31. household cleaning agents. JAMA, Jul 16, 1982.
  32. (3), 349-50.
  33. Gilchrist H.L., Matz PB., The residual effects
  34. of warfare gases: the use of chlorine gas, with
  35. report of cases. Med. Bull. Vet. Adminis., 1933.
  36. b,9 , 229-270.
  37. Hedges J.R., Morrissey W.L., Acute chlorine
  38. gas exposure. JACEP, Feb, 1979. 8(2), 59-63.
  39. Hayaishi O., Enzymatic hydroxylation. Am
  40. Rev. Biochem, 1969. 38, 21-44.
  41. Harman D., Role of free radicals in aging and
  42. disease. Annals of New York Academy of
  43. Sciences, 1992. 673,126-141.
  44. Han D., Williams E., Cadenas E.,
  45. Mitochondrial respiratory chain-dependent
  46. generation of superoxide anion and its release into
  47. the intermembrane space. Biochem. J, 2001. 353,
  48. ââ‚‌“6.
  49. gnaiJ K., Buckley L., Morgan k., Pathology of
  50. Toxic Responses to the RD50Concentration of
  51. Chlorine Gas in the Nasal Passages of Rats and
  52. Mice, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (71),225-236.
  53. Jones R.N., Hughes J.M., Glindmeyer H.,
  54. Weill H., Lung function after acute chlorine
  55. exposure. Am. Rev. Resp. Dis., Dec, 1986. 134(6),
  56. -5.
  57. Klonne D., Ulrich C., Riley M., Hamm T.,
  58. Morgan K., Barrow C., One-year inhalation
  59. toxicology study of chlorine in rhesus monkeys,
  60. Fundam. Appl. Toxical., 9. 557-572.
  61. Malcolm B.H., Poisoning Due to Chlorine Gas,
  62. CARPIN; 81,42-45.
  63. Martinez T.T., Long C., Explosion risk from
  64. swimming pool chlorinators and review of
  65. chlorine toxicity. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol., 1995.
  66. (4), 349-54.
  67. Patel R.P., The biochemistry of nitric oxide
  68. and peroxynitrite implications for mitochondrial
  69. function. In Packer L, Cadenas E Understanding
  70. the process of aging: the roles of mitochondria,
  71. free radicals, and antioxidants. New York, NY
  72. Marcel Dekker 2003. 45,39ââ‚‌“56.
  73. Schwartz D.A., Acute inhalational injury.
  74. Occup. Med., Apr-Jun, 1987. 2(2),297-318.
  75. Trotman E.R., Textile scouring and bleaching
  76. Saudi Public, Textile Scouring and Bleaching,
  77. 89-94.