Separation of Trace Amount Zn (II) Using Additional Carbonyl and Carboxyl Groups Functionalized-Nano Graphene



A novel and selective method for the fast determination of trace amounts of Zn(II)ions in water samples has been developed.  The first additional carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene (SPFNano graphene). The presence of additional carbonyl and carboxyl groups located at the edge of the sheets makes GO sheets strongly hydrophilic, allowing them to readily swell and disperse in water. Based on these oxygen functionalities, different model structures of GO were used as absorbent for extraction of Zn (II)   ions by solid phase extraction method. The complexes were eluted with HNO3 (2M)10% V.V-1 methanol in acetone and determined the analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  The procedure is based on the selective formation of Zn (II) at optimum pH by elution with organic eluents and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on complex formation on the surface of the ENVI-18 DISKTM disks modified carbonyl and carboxyl functionalized-nano graphene oxide molecules covalently bonded together followed by stripping of the retained species by minimum amounts of appropriate organic solvents. The elution is efficient and quantitative. The effect of potential interfering ions, pH, SPFNano graphene, amount, stripping solvent, and sample flow rate were also investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the break-through volume was found to about 1000mL providing a preconcentration factor of 500. The maximum capacity of the disks was found to be 456± 3 µg for Zn2+.The limit of detection of the proposed method is 5ng per 1000mL.The method was applied to the extraction and recovery of Zn in different water samples.


  1. J.B. Neto, V. Stefan, B.B. Mendonca,W. Bloise, A.V.B. Castro, Nutr. Res.15 (1995) 335.
  2. B.N. Ames, Mutat. Res. 475 (2001) 7.
  3. J.Y. Koh, Mol. Neurobiol. 24 (2001) 99.
  4. K.A. Tony, S. Kartikeyan, B. Vijayalakshmy, T.P. Rao, C.S.P. Iyer, Analyst 124 (1999) 191.
  5. R.J. Cassella, D.T. Bitencourt, A.G. Branco, S.L.C. Ferreira, D.S. Jesus, M.S. Carvalhod, R.E. Santelli, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 14 (1999) 1749.
  6. D. Kara, A. Fisher, S.J. Hill, Analyst 130 (2005) 1518.
  7. M. Zougagh, P.C. Rudner, A.G. Torres, J.M.C. Pav´on, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 15 (2000) 1589.
  8. .V.A. Lemos,W.N.L. Santos, J.S. Santos, M.B. Carvalho, Anal. Chim. Acta 481 (2003) 283.
  9. MOGHIMI, A. "Chinese Journal of Chemistry ââ‚‌ 2007,25, 640.
  10. MOGHIMI, A. Oriental Journal of Chemistry 2006,22(3),527.
  11. .M. Kumar, D.P.S. Rathore, A.K. Singh, Talanta 51 (2000) 1187.
  12. .P.K. Tewari, A.K. Singh, Analyst 125 (2000) 2350.
  13. .B.R. Reddy, D.N. Pridy, Sep. Purif. Technol. 45 (2005) 163.
  14. Mahmoud M.E., Talanta ,1997,45 ,309.
  15. . Mahmoud M.E., Soliman E.M., Talata,1997, 44,15.
  16. . Mahmoud M.E., Soliman E.M., Talanta ,1997,44 ,1063.
  17. .M.A. Taher, Analyst 125 (2000) 1865.
  18. .M.A. Taher, Talanta 52 (2000) 181.
  19. Mahmoud M.E., in: Proceeding of the 25th FACSS Conference, Austin, TX, USA, 11ââ‚‌“15 October, 1998.
  20. A. Moghimi,; M.S.Tehrani,; S.Waqif Husain, Material Science Research India 2006,3(1a),27.
  21. . Leyden D.E., Luttrell G.H., Sloan A.E., DeAngelis N.J., Anal. Chim. Acta ,1976,84 ,97.
  22. P.Nayebi,; A.MOGHIMI, Oriental Journal of Chemistry 22(3) (2006) 507.
  23. .Q.P. Liu, J.C. Liu, Y. Tong, J.K. Cheng, Anal. Chim. Acta 269 (1992) 223.
  24. .Q.P. Liu, T. Zhao, J.C. Liu, J.K. Cheng, Microchim. Acta 122 (1996) 27.
  25. .I.V. Mishenina, E.N. Shapovalova, T.A. Bolshova, P.V. Smirnov, O.A. Shpigun, J. Anal. Chem. 51 (1996) 270ââ‚‌“276.
  26. .H. Wang, H.S. Zhang, J.K. Cheng, Talanta 48 (1999) 1.
  27. .H.Wang, H.S. Zhang, J.K. Cheng, P.H. Qiu Microchem. J. (1997) 332.
  28. C.P. Zhang, D.Y. Qi, T.Z. Zhou, Talanta 29(1982) 1119.
  29. .T.Z. Zhou, D.Y. Qi, C.P. Zhang, Acta Chim. Sin. 41(1983) 237.
  30. . Zargaran M., Shoushtari A. M., Abdouss M., J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2008, 110, 3843.
  31. Tabarzadi M., Abdouss M., Hasani S. A., Shoushtary A.M., Mat.-wiss. u.Werkstofftech. 2010, 41, No. 4,221
  32. . Shin D. H., Ko Y. G., Choi U. S., Kim W. N., Ind. Eng. Res.2004, 43, 2060.
  33. Liu Y, Li Y, Yan XP (2008). Adv Funct Mater 18(10):1536ââ‚‌“1543
  34. Zang ZP, Hu Z, Li ZH, He Q, Chang XJ (2009) J Hazard Mater 172(2ââ‚‌“3):958ââ‚‌“963
  35. Yang Cui , Zhang-Jun Hu & Jia-Xiang Yang ,Hong-Wen GaoMicrochim Acta (2012) 176:359ââ‚‌“366
  36. R.M. Izatt, J.S. Bradshaw, R.L. Bruening, Pure Appl. Chem. 68(1996)1237.
  37. D.F.Hagen, C.G.Markell, G.A. Schmitt, Anal.Chim. Acta 236(1990)157.
  38. C.J.Krueger, J.A. Fild, Anal.Chem. 67(1995)3363.
  39. K.Z.Taylor, D.S.Waddell,E.J.Reiner,Anal. Chem. 67(1995)1186.
  40. Y.Yamini, M.Ashraf-Khorassani, J.High Resolut. Chromatogr.17(1994)634.
  41. M.Shamsipur, A.R.Ghiasvand, Y.Yamini, Anal.Chem. 71(1999)4892.
  42. - M.Shamsipur, A.R.Ghiasvand, H. Sharghi, Int. J.Environ. Anal.Chem. 82(2001)23.
  43. - Brunner, J.;Mokhir, A.;Kramer, R.J.Am.Chem.Soc. 125(2003)12410.
  44. - Zelder, F.H.;Brunner, J.; Kramer, R. Chem. Commun.2004, 902.
  45. - Boll, I.; Kramer, R.; Brunner, J.; Mokhir, A. J.Am.Chem. Soc. 27(2005)7849.
  46. MOGHIMI1, A. ; Oriental Journal of Chemistry 2006,22(3),527.
  47. Nayebi, P.; MOGHIMI, A.;Oriental Journal of Chemistry 2006,22(3),507.
  48. MOGHIMI, A.; "Chinese Journal of Chemistry ââ‚‌ 2007,25, 640.
  49. MOGHIMI, A.;"Chinese Journal of Chemistry ââ‚‌ 2007,25,10, 1536.
  50. Moghimi, A.; Ghammamy S. "Environmental chemistry an Indian journal"2007,Vol.2, Issues 3.
  51. Choi,Y.S.;Choi,H.S.Bull.Korean Chem. Soc.24(2003)222.
  52. Saber Tehrani,M.; Rastegar,F.; Parchehbaf, A.;Rezvani,Z.;Chinese Journal of Chemistry 23(2005)1437.
  53. Lerf A, He H, Forster M, Klinowski J. Structure of graphite oxide revisited. J Phys Chem B 1998;102:4477ââ‚‌“82.
  54. Gao W, Alemany LB, Ci L, Ajayan PM. New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide. Nat Chem 2009;1:403ââ‚‌“8.
  55. Nethravathi C, Rajamathi JT, Ravishankar N, Shivakumara C, Rajamathi M. Graphite oxide-intercalated anionic clay and its decomposition to nano grapheneââ‚‌“inorganic material nanocomposites. Langmuir 2008;24:8240ââ‚‌“4.
  56. Szabo T, Szeri A, Dekany I. Composite graphitic nanolayers prepared by self-assembly between finely dispersed graphite oxide and a cationic polymer. Carbon 2005;43:87ââ‚‌“94.
  57. Szabo T, Berkesi O, Forgo P, Josepovits K, Sanakis Y, Petridis D, et al. Evolution of surface functional groups in a series of progressively oxidized graphite oxides. Chem Mater 2006;18:2740ââ‚‌“9.