Extraction of Ultra Trace Amounts Bismuth in Water Samples Using Cloud Point Extraction with 2-Amino-Cyclopentene-1-Dithiocarboxylic Acid


Department of Chemistry, Varamin (Pishva) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran


A new approach for a cloud point extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method was used for determining bismuth. The aqueous analyte was acidified with sulfuric acid (pH 3.0–3.5). Triton X-114 was added as a surfactant and 2-amino-cyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid was used as a complexing agent. After phase separation at 50 ◦C based on the cloud point separation of the mixture, the surfactant-rich phasen was diluted using tetrahydrofuran (THF). Twenty microliters (20 μL) of the enriched solution and 10 µl of 0.1% (w/v) Pd (NO3)2 as chemical modifier were dispersed into the graphite tube and the analyte was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. After optimizing extraction conditions and instrumental parameters, a preconcentration factor of 195 was obtained for a sample of only 10 mL. The detection limit was 0.04 ng ml−1 and the analytical curve was linear for the concentration range of 0.04–0.70 ng mL−1. Relative standard deviations were <5%. The method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of bismuth in water samples. 


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