Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized and UHT Milk Commercialized in Shiraz, Khuzestan and Yazd, Iran

Authors

1 Department of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O.Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran

2 Graduated of Food Sciences and Technology, School of Agriculture, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O.Box 166, Shahrekord, Iran

Abstract

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of the carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and may be found in the milk of lactating animals that have ingested feedstuffs contaminated with AFB1 Between Jun 2010 and March 2011, 149 samples of pasteurized (n=90) and UHT (n=59) milk were collected from supermarkets in the cities of Shiraz, Khuzestan and Yazed, Iran. All samples were analyzed for AFM1 contamination by ELISA and 142 (95.3%) were positive with mean concentrations 41 ng.l-1. These concentrations are lower than the standads of Codex Alimentarius and FDA (500 ng.l-1), but 33 samples (22.1%) had higher concentrations than the maximum tolerance accepted by some European countries (50 ng.l-1). Mean concentrations of AFM1 in pasteurized and UHT milk were 39 and 46 ng.l-1, respectively. Mean concentrations of AFM1 in fall and winter samples were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of summer but differences between AFM1 concentrations of fall and winter samples were not significantly different. No significant differences in Concentrations of AFM1 in milk samples between Shiraz, Khuzestan and Yazd. Considering the results, this survey revealed a high frequency of AFM1 contamination in milk samples from central part of Iran.

Keywords


  1. Alborzi, S., B. Pourabbas, M. Rashidi and B.
  2. Astaneh, 2006. Aflatoxin M1
  3. contamination Pasteurized milk in Shiraz
  4. (South of Iran). Food Control, 17, 582-
  5. Bakirci, I., 2001. A study on the occurrence of
  6. aflatoxin M1 in milk and milk products
  7. produced in Van province of Turkey.
  8. Food Control, 12, 47-51.
  9. Creppy, E.E., 2002. Update of survey, regulation
  10. and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe.
  11. Toxicol. Lett., 127, 19-28.
  12. Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2001.
  13. Comment submitted on the draft maximum
  14. level for aflatoxin M1 in milk. In Codex
  15. committee on food additives and
  16. contaminants 33rd session. Hauge, The
  17. Netherlands.
  18. European Commission Regulation, No
  19. /2001/EC of 8 March 2001, setting
  20. maximum levels for certain contaminants in
  21. food stuffs. Official Journal of the European
  22. Commission Lo77: 2001; 1-13.
  23. Fallah, A. A., 2010. Aflatoxin M1 contamination
  24. in dairy products marketed in Iran during
  25. winter and summer. Food Control, 21 ,
  26. -1481.
  27. FAO/WHO, 1999. Forty-ninth report of the joint
  28. FAO/WHO Expert Committee of Food
  29. Additives: Evaluation of Certain Food
  30. Additive and Contaminations. WHO
  31. Technical report Series, 884, 69-77.
  32. Galvano, F., V. Galofaro and G. Galvona, 1996.
  33. Occurrence and stability of aflatoxin M1 in
  34. milk and milk products: a worldwide review.
  35. J. Food Prot., 59, 1079-1090.
  36. Hussain, I. and J. Anwar, 2008. A study on
  37. contamination of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk in
  38. the Punjab province of Pakistan. Food
  39. Control, 19, 393-395.
  40. International Agency for Research on Cancer,
  41. Some Naturally Occurring Substances:
  42. food items and constituents, heterocyclic
  43. aromatic amines and mycotoxins.
  44. Monographs on the Evaluation of
  45. Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, 56, 245-395
  46. (Lyon: IARC).
  47. Ghanem, I. and M. Orfi, 2009. Aflatoxin M1 in
  48. raw, pasteurized and powdered milk
  49. available in Syrian market. Food Control,
  50. , 603ââ‚‌“605.
  51. Kamkar, A., 2005. A study on the contamination
  52. of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in
  53. Sarab city of Iran. Food Control, 16, 593-
  54. Karim, G., 1998. Study on the contamination of
  55. raw bulk milk with aflatoxin M1 in Tehran
  56. area using ELISA method (Persian). J.
  57. Pajoohesh va Sazandeghi, 40-42, 163-165.
  58. Lafont, P., M. Siriwardana and J. Lafont, 1989.
  59. Genotoxicity of hydroxylaflatoxins M1 and
  60. M4. Microbiol. Aliments Nutr., 7, 1-8.
  61. Lopez, C.E., L.L. Ramos, S.S. Ramadan and L.C.
  62. Bulacio, 2003. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in
  63. milk for human consumption Argentina.
  64. Food Control, 14, 31-34.
  65. Movassagh, M.H., 2011. Presence of aflatoxin
  66. M1 in UHT milk in Tabriz (northwest of
  67. Iran). J. Food Safety, 31, 238ââ‚‌“241.
  68. Oveisi, M.R., B. Jannat, N. Sadeghi, M.
  69. Hajiohamoodi and A. Nikzad, 2007.
  70. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and infant
  71. milk products in Tehran, Iran. Food Control,
  72. , 1216-1218.
  73. Park, D.L., 2002. Effect of processing on
  74. aflatoxin. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 504, 173-
  75. Rahimi, E., M. Bonyadian, M. Rafei, H.R.
  76. Kazemeini, 2009a. Occurrence of aflatoxin
  77. M1 in raw milk of five dairy species in
  78. Ahvaz, Iran. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48, 129-
  79. Rahimi, E., A. Shakerian, M. Jafariyan, M.
  80. Ebrahimi and M. Riahi, 2009b. Occurrence
  81. of aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized and
  82. UHT milk commercialized in Esfahan and
  83. Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Food Security, 1, 317-
  84. Saitanu, K., 1997. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in
  85. Thai milk products. J. Food Prot. 60, 1010ââ‚‌“
  86. Stoloff, L., H.P. Van Egmond and D.L. Parks,
  87. Rationales for the establishment of
  88. limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food
  89. Addit. Contam., 8, 222-231.
  90. Tajkarimi, M., F. Shojaee Alibadi, M. Salah
  91. Nejad, H. Pursoltani, A.A. Motallebi and H.
  92. Mahdavi, 2007. Seasonal study of aflatoxin
  93. M1 contamination in milk in five regions in
  94. Iran. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 116, 346-349.
  95. Tajkarimi, M., F. Aliabadi-Sh, A. Salah Nejad,
  96. H. Pursoltani, A.A. Motallebi and H.
  97. Mahdavi, 2008. Aflatoxin M1 contamination
  98. in winter and summer milk in 14 states in
  99. Iran. Food Control, 19, 1033-1036.
  100. Trucksess, M.W., 1999. Mycotoxins. Journal of
  101. the AOAC International, 82, 488-495.
  102. Unusan, N., 2006. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in
  103. UHT milk in Turkey. Food Chem. Toxicol.,
  104. , 1897ââ‚‌“1900.
  105. Van Egmond, H.P., 1989. Mycotoxins in Dairy
  106. Products. Elsevier Applied Science, London